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Movement Youth in a Global Sixties Hub: The Everyday Lives of Transnational Activists in Postcolonial Dar es Salaam

  • Andrew Ivaska
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series book series (PMSTH)

Abstract

Writing in a mimeographed student journal in 1970, long before he would become a household name across Africa as president of Uganda, a young Yoweri Museveni reflected on his undergraduate years away from home at the University of Dar es Salaam in neighboring Tanzania. He explained how the choice to leave Uganda for university abroad but not in the West was a natural one at the time for any young East African with leftist political leanings. Tanzania’s capital city, after all, had developed an unparalleled ‘atmosphere of freedom fighters, socialists, nationalizations [and] anti-imperialism’, Museveni recalled, one which he was determined to join ‘at any cost’.1 By the time Museveni arrived in 1967, Dar es Salaam had already seen Che Guevara and Malcolm X come through town on tours of this ‘revolutionary’ capital. Over the course of the next several years, many more leading lights of a ‘global sixties’ left would follow: Stokely Carmichael, C.L.R. James, Angela Davis, Giovanni Arrighi, Eldridge Cleaver, Walter Rodney, Amiri Baraka, Robert F. Williams, Ruth First — to name but a selection. As one of Museveni’s peers at the university would remark, in Dar es Salaam ‘you could not help but be infected by the liberation bug’.2

Keywords

Liberation Movement Transnational Activist Activist Scene Opposition Movement Black Scholar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 2.
    A. Rice (2010) The Teeth May Smile But the Heart Does Not Forget: Murder and Memory in Uganda (New York: Picador), p. 96.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    There is to date no comprehensive academic study of this scene. For published memoirs that touch on it, see J. S. Saul (2009) Revolutionary Traveller: Freeze-Frames from a Life (Winnipeg: Arbeiter Ring Publishing);Google Scholar
  3. I. Shivji (1993) Intellectuals at the Hill: Essays and Talks, 1969–1993 (Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press);Google Scholar
  4. K. F. Hirji (2010) Cheche: Reminiscences of a Radical Magazine (Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota);Google Scholar
  5. J. S. Saul (1973) ‘Radicalism and the Hill’ in L. Cliffe and J. S. Saul (eds) Socialism in Tanzania: Vol. 2: Politics (Dar es Salaam: East African Publishing House); Museveni, ‘My Three Years’.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    Recent studies ol transnational 1960s activism that foreground the youthlul character ol these nodes include Q. Slobodian (2012) Foreign Front: Third World Politics in Sixties West Germany (Durham: Duke University Press);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. V. Langland (2013) Speaking of Flowers: Student Movements and the Making and Remembering of 1968 in Military Brazil (Durham: Duke University Press);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. J. Pensado (2013) Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties (Stanford: Stanford University Press);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. M. Klimke (2008) The Other Alliance: Student Protest in West Germany and the United States in the Global Sixties (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  10. 5.
    A. Ivaska (2011) Cultured States: Youth, Gender, and Modern Style in 1960s Dar es Salaam (Durham: Duke University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 6.
    For an insightful portrait of the African American expatriate community in Nkrumah’s Ghana, see K. K. Gaines (2006) American Africans in Ghana: Black Expatriates in the Civil Rights Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 8.
    Aluka archive, ‘No Easy Victories’ collection, interviews with Prexy Nesbitt, Bill Sutherland, Jennifer Davis, Geri Augusto, Sylvia Hill. For extracts from the ‘No Easy Victories’, interviews, see W. Minter, G. Hovey and C. Cobb Jr. (eds) (2007) No Easy Victories: African Liberation and American Activists Over Half a Century, 1950–2000 (Trenton: Africa World Press).Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Hawley ‘Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane (1920–1969)’; Prexy Nesbitt, interviewed by author, Chicago, 26 August 2011; H. Shore (1992) ‘Remembering Eduardo: Reflections on the Life and Legacy of Eduardo Mondlane’, Africa Today, 39 (1/2), 35–52.Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    On Stokely Carmichael at UDSM, see Museveni, ‘My Three Years’; on appeals by Southern African liberation movements at 6-PAC, see the addresses by Marcelino do Santos and Owusu Sadauki in H. Campbell (ed.) (1975) Pan-Africanism: The Struggle Against Imperialism and Neo-Colonialism: Documents of the Sixth Pan-African Congress (Toronto: Afro Carib Publishers).Google Scholar
  15. 20.
    For usefully different meditations on the centrality of affective personal connections to the formation of political communities, movements, and networks, see L. Ghandi (2006) Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought, Tin de Siecle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship (Durham: Duke University Press);Google Scholar
  16. R. I. Jobs and P. F. McDevitt (2005) ‘Where the Hell Are the People?’ Journal of Social History, 39 (2), 309–14;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. B. Latour (2005) Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  18. 22.
    See F. C. Wilkins (2010) ‘“A Line of Steel”: The Organization of the Sixth Pan-African Congress and the Struggle for International Black Power, 1969–1974’ in D. Berger (ed.) The Hidden 1970s: Histories of Radicalism (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press);Google Scholar
  19. B. G. Plummer (2013) In Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956–1974 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    B. Eubanks, letter to the Storcdard, 20 November 1969; L. Levy (2008) ‘Remembering Sixth-PAC: Interviews with Sylvia Hill and Judy Claude, Organizers of the Sixth Pan-African Congress’, The Black Scholar, 37 (4), 44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 42.
    A. Coulson (1982) Tanzania: A Political Economy (Oxford: Clarendon Press);Google Scholar
  22. J. Bayart (1993) The State in Africa (London: Longman).Google Scholar
  23. 46.
    B. Sutherland and M. Meyer (2006) Guns and Gandhi in Africa: Pan African Insights on Nonviolence, Armed Struggle and Liberation in Africa (Trenton: Africa World Press), p. 229.Google Scholar
  24. 47.
    This paragraph is drawn from the following sources: ‘Two from U.S. held after police find guns and bullets’, Daily News, 28 May 1974; ‘Police probe packages from the U.S.’, Daily News, 29 May 1974; ‘Afros ready to help probe infiltration’, Daily News, 17 June 1974; G. Mwakikagile (2006) Relations Between Africans and African Americans (New York: Continental Press), chapter 7.Google Scholar
  25. 52.
    Gaines, African Americans in Ghana; Q. Slobodian (2012) Foreign Front: Third World Politics in Sixties West Germany (Durham: Duke University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Andrew Ivaska 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Ivaska

There are no affiliations available

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