Liberalism has had a long history in China. Western culture and ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity began influencing China about 200 years ago and continue to have a major impact. Although poorly understood and inadequately diffused before the market-oriented reform of the late 1970s, in the past three decades liberalism has become an important school of thought among Chinese intellectual circles, and a liberal camp was established in China in the late 1990s.1


Market Economy Private Property Economic Freedom Liberal Democracy Political Reform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chongyi Feng, “The Chinese Liberal Camp in Post-June 4th China,” China Perspectives, no. 2 (2009): 30–41.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paul Starr, Freedom’s Power: The True Force of Liberalism (New York: Basic Books, 2007), 2.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Max Ko-wu Huang, The Meaning of Freedom: Yan Fu and the Origins of Chinese Liberalism (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2008).Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Eugene Lubot, Liberalism in an Illiberal Age: New Culture Liberals in Republican China, 1919–1937 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982), 131.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Xu Youyu, “The Debates between Liberalism and the New Left in China since the 1990s,” Contemporary Chinese Thought, 34, no. 3 (2003): 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 10.
    Qin Hui, “Ziyouzhuyi, shehuiminzhuzhuyi yu dangdai zhongguo wenti,” [Liberalism, Social-democracy and Problems in Contemporary China] in Gong Yang, ed., Sichao: Zhongguo xinzuopai jiqi yingxiang [Schools of Thought: China’s New Left and Its Impact] (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 2003), 385.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    Carol Lee Hamrin and Timothy Cheek eds., China’s Establishment Intellectuals (Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1986).Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Xu Jilin, “What Future for Public Intellectuals? The Specialisation of Knowledge, the Commercialisation of Culture and the Emergence of Post-modernism Characterise China in the 1990s,” China Perspectives, no. 52 (March-April, 2004): 16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 15.
    Timothy Cheek, “Xu Jilin and the Thought Work of China’s Public Intellectuals,” China Quarterly, no. 186 (2006): 401–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 16.
    Liu Junning, “Intellectual Turn: The Emergence of Liberalism in Contemporary China,” in Ted Galen Carpenter and James A. Dorn, eds., China’s Future: Constructive Partner or Emerging Threat (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2000), 56–7.Google Scholar
  11. 17.
    Xu Youyu, “Ziyouzhuyi yu dangdai zhongguo,” [Liberalism and Contemporary China] in Li Shitao, ed. Zhishifenzi lichang — ziyouzhuyi zhizheng yu zhongguo sixiangjie de fenhua [The Positions of the Intellectuals — Debate on Liberalism and the Scission among the Chinese Intelligentsia] (Changchun: Shidai wenyi chubanshe, 1999), 417.Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    Merle Goldman, From Comrade to Citizen: The Struggle for Political Rights in China (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2005), 149.Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    Li Shenzhi, “Zhongguo chuantong wenhua zhong jiwu minzhu yewu kexue,” [Chinese Traditional Culture: No Democracy, No Science] in Qiu Shi ed., Jiefang Wenxuan (1978–1998) [Article Selection of Liberation (1978–1998)] (Beijing: Economic Daily Press, 1998), 1118–24.Google Scholar
  14. 26.
    Li Zehou, “Manshuo xiti zhongyong,” [Notes on Western Substance and Chinese Function] in Li Zehou, ed., Zhongguo xiandai sixiang shilun [Essays on Modern Chinese Thought] (Beijing: Dongfang chubanshe, 1987), 420–21.Google Scholar
  15. 27.
    Li Shenzhi, “Heping fendou xing zhongguo,” [Rejuvenating China Through Peaceful Efforts] in Li Shenzhi, ed., Ershiyi shiji de yousi [Concerns about the 21st Century] (Hong Kong: Mingbao chubanshe, 2003), 30–41.Google Scholar
  16. 28.
    Liu Junning, “Intellectual Turn: The Emergence of Liberalism in Contemporary China,” in Ted Galen Carpenter and James A. Dorn, eds., China’s Future: Constructive Partner or Emerging Threat (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2000), 57.Google Scholar
  17. 29.
    Jonathan Alter, “On the Road in China,” Newsweek, 29 June 1998.Google Scholar
  18. 32.
    Chongyi Feng, “The Return of Liberalism and Social Democracy: Breaking Through the Barriers of State Socialism, Nationalism, and Cynicism in Contemporary China,” Issues & Studies: An International Quarterly on China, Taiwan, and East Asian Affairs, 39, no. 3 (2003): 8.Google Scholar
  19. 33.
    Elizabeth Rosenthal, “China’s Leading University Celebrates and Ponders,” New York Times, 5 May 1998.Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    Bo Zhiyue and Chen Gang, “Global Financial Crisis and the Voice of the New Left in China,” EAI Background Brief, no. 443 (2008), 3–4.Google Scholar
  21. 36.
    Cheng Li, China’s Changing Political landscape (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008), 6–7.Google Scholar
  22. 39.
    Zhou Lian, “The Debates in Contemporary Chinese Political Thought,” in Fred Dallmayr and Zhao Tingyang, eds., Contemporary Chinese Political Thought, Debates and Perspectives (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2012), 34.Google Scholar
  23. 40.
    Gerda Wielander, Christian Values in Communist China (Oxford and New York: Routledge, 2013), 133.Google Scholar
  24. 41.
    Nicholas D. Kristof, “China Sees ‘Market-Leninism’ as Way to Future,” New York Times, 6 September 1993.Google Scholar
  25. 42.
    Ben Xu, Disenchanted Democracy: Chinese Cultural Criticism After 1989 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), 13.Google Scholar
  26. 44.
    He Bingmeng ed., Xinziyouzhuyi pingxi [Analysis of Neoliberalism] (Beijing: Social Science Documentation Publishing House, 2004).Google Scholar
  27. 45.
    Liu Junning ed., Ziyouzhuyi de xiansheng: Beida chuantong yu jinxiandai zhongguo [The Harbinger of Liberalism: The Tradition of Peking University and Modern China] (Beijing, Zhongguo renshi chubanshe, 1998).Google Scholar
  28. 47.
    Liu Junning, “Classical Liberalism Catches on in China,” Journal of Democracy, 11, no. 3 (July 2000): 48–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 48.
    Andrew Nathan, “Classical Liberalism Catches on in China,” in Andrew J. Nathan, Larry Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner, eds., Will China Democratize? (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013), 193.Google Scholar
  30. 49.
    He Li, “Returned Students and Political Change in China,” Asian Perspective, 30, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 5–29.Google Scholar
  31. 51.
    Barrett L. McCormick and David Kelley, “The Limits of Anti-Liberalism,” Journal of Asian Studies, 53 no. 3 (August 1994): 804–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 52.
    Yun-han Chu, “The Evolution of Political Values,” in Bruce Gilley and Larry Diamond, eds., Political Change in China: Comparison with Taiwan (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2008), 27–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© He Li 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • He Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Merrimack CollegeUSA

Personalised recommendations