Advertisement

The International Dimensions of Portuguese Colonial Crisis

  • Luís Nuno Rodrigues
Part of the Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series book series (CIPCSS)

Abstract

This chapter deals with the international dimensions of the Portuguese colonial crisis, focusing on the beginning of the war in Angola in early 1961, and on the reaction of several countries to the problems Portugal was facing in that territory and, in the following years, in Portuguese Guinea and Mozambique. It begins with a general overview of Portuguese colonialism in the context of the Cold War and then analyses the positions taken by the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany in 1961 regarding Portuguese colonial crisis. The argument presented here is that Portugal was able to circumvent the difficulties felt in the United Nations (UN) and in the relationship with the United States by developing and strengthening its relations with the above mentioned European countries. Contrary to what Salazar, the leader of the Portuguese government, would claim in 1965, Portugal was not ‘proudly alone’ in its military efforts in Africa and diplomacy was playing a central role in the Portuguese strategy of resisting decolonization.

Keywords

United Nations Security Council International Dimension North Atlantic Treaty Organization Security Council Resolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    See also L. N. Rodrigues, No Coração do Atlântico: Os Estados Unidos e os Açores, 1939–1948, Lisbon, Prefácio, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. N. Rodrigues, ‘Crossroads of the Atlantic: Portugal, the Azores and the Atlantic community (1943–57)’, in V. Aubourg, G. Bossuat and G. Scott-Smith, eds, European Community, Atlantic Community?, Paris, Soleb, 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    For Portugal and the Marshall Plan see F. Rollo, Portugal e a Reconstrução Económica do Pós-Guerra: O Piano Marshall e a Economia Portuguesa dos Anos SO, Lisbon, Institute Diplomático, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. Portugal’s participation in NATO is analysed by A. Telo, Portugal e a Nato: O Reencontro da Tradição Atlântica, Lisbon, Cosmos, 1996,Google Scholar
  5. and N. S. Teixeira, ‘Da neutralidade ao alinhamento: Portugal na fundação do pacto do Atlântico’, Analise Social, XXVIII, 120, 1993, pp. 55–80. Available at analisesocial.ics.ul.pt/documentos/1223289808W3fUK8ss8Gz370V3.pdf.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    T. J. Noer, ‘New frontiers and old priorities in Africa’, in T. G. Paterson, ed., Kennedy’s Quest for Victory: American Foreign Policy, 1961–1963, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 1989, p. 254.Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    See O. A. Westad, The Global Cold War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007, especially chapter 4.Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    J. Parker, ‘Cold War II: The Eisenhower Administration, the Bandung Conference, and the reperiodization of the postwar era’, Diplomatic History, 30 (5), 2006, p. 890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    For the Constitutional revision of 1951 see A. E. D. Silva, ‘Salazar e a política colonial do Estado Novo: O Acto Colonial, 1930–1951’, in F. Rosas and J. M. Brandão de Brito, eds, Salazar eo Salazarismo, Lisbon, Dom Quixote, 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    On lusotropicalism see C. Castelo, O Modo Português de Estar no Mundo: O Luso-Tropicalismo e a Ideologia Colonial Portuguesa (1933–1961), Lisbon, Afrontamento, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    There is a vast literature on the Portuguese colonial wars. For a general overview, among others, see A. Afonso and C. de M. Gomes, Os Anos da Guerra Colonial, 1961–1975, Matosinhos, QuidNovi, 2010;Google Scholar
  12. A. C. Pinto, O Fim do Império Português: A Cena International, a Guerra Colonial, e a Descolonização, 1961–1975, Lisbon, Horizonte, 2001;Google Scholar
  13. J. P. Cann, Contra-Insurreiçâo em Africa: O Modo Português de Fazer a Guerra, 1961–1974, Lisbon, Atena, 1998;Google Scholar
  14. and J. F. Antunes, A Guerra de África, 1961–1974, vols. 1–2, Lisbon, Cïrculo de Leitores, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 12.
    J. C. de Magalhães, Portugal e as Naçôes Unidas: A Questâo Colonial, 1955–1974, Lisbon, IEEI, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. On Portugal and the United Nations see also F. Martins, ‘A política externa do Estado Novo, o Ultramar e a ONU, 1955–1968’, Penélope, 18, pp. 189–206, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    On Kennedy’s policy on Angola see L. N. Rodrigues, ‘About-lace: The United States and Portuguese colonialism in 1961’, E-Journal of Portuguese History, 2, 1, 2004, available at www.brown.edu/Departments/Portuguese_Brazilian_Studies/ejph/html/issue3/pdl/lnrodrigues.pdl; L. N. Rodrigues, Kennedy-Salazar: A Crise de uma Aliança: As Relaçôes Luso-Americanas entre 1961 e 1963, Lisbon, Notícias, 2002;Google Scholar
  18. W. Schneidman, Engaging Africa: Washington and the Fall of Portugal’s Colonial Empire, New York, NY, University Press of America, 2004;Google Scholar
  19. J. F. Antunes, Kennedy e Salazar: O Leão e a Raposa, Lisbon, Difusão Cultural, 1992.Google Scholar
  20. 16.
    See D. Marcos, ‘Uma relação conturbada: Os americanos nos Açores e a questão colonial portuguesa nos anos 50’, in P. A. Oliveira and M. I. Rezola, eds, O Longo Curso: Estudos em Homenagem a José Medeiros Ferreira, Lisbon, Tinta da China, 2010.Google Scholar
  21. 18.
    L. N. Rodrigues, ‘Today’s terrorist is tomorrow’s statesman: The United States and Angolan nationalism in the early 1960s’, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, 3, 2, 2004, pp. 115–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    L. N. Rodrigues, ‘Azores or Angola? Military bases and sell-determination during the Kennedy administration’, in L. N. Rodrigues and S. Glebov, eds, Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges, Amsterdam, IOS, 2009.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Schlesinger Jr., A Fhousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House, Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin, 1965, pp. 562–563.Google Scholar
  24. 26.
    T. Lyons, ‘Keeping Alrica off the agenda,’ in W. Cohen and N. Bernkopl Tucker, eds, Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963–1968, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  25. 30.
    R. Oliveira, Os Despojos da Aliança: A Grã-Bretanha e a Questão Colonial Portuguesa, 1945–1975, Lisbon, Tinta da China, 2007, p. 239.Google Scholar
  26. 34.
    L. W. Henderson, Angola: Five Centuries of Conflict, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1979, p. 237.Google Scholar
  27. 36.
    NARA, SDCF, 1960–63, Box 1817, 753.5 MSP/8–1861, ‘Lisbon 252, 18 August 1961.’ See also Oliveira, Os Despojos da Aliança, 2007, pp. 255–256.Google Scholar
  28. 37.
    R. N. Swift, Annual Review of United Nations Affairs, 1961–1962, New York, NY, Oceana, 1963, p. 147.Google Scholar
  29. 38.
    F. Nogueira, Salazar. Vol. V: A Resistência (1958–1964), Oporto: Livraria Civilização, 1988, pp. 358–362.Google Scholar
  30. 40.
    H. MacMillan, At the End of the Day, 1961–1963, London, Macmillan, 1973, pp. 225–226.Google Scholar
  31. 42.
    F. Nogueira, Diálogos Interditos; Parte Primeira (1961–1962–1963), Lisbon, Intervenção, 1979, pp. 185–190.Google Scholar
  32. 43.
    N. MacQueen and P. A. Oliveira, ‘“Grocer meets butcher”: Marcello Caetano’s London visit of 1973 and the last days of Portugal’s Estado Novo’, Cold War History, 10, 1, 2010, p. 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 44.
    For relations between Portugal and Rhodesia see L. Barroso, Salazar e Ian Smith: O Apoio de Portugal à Rodésia (1964–1969), Lisbon, Instituto Diplomático, 2009.Google Scholar
  34. 45.
    Oliveira, Os Despojos da Aliança, 2007, p. 479.Google Scholar
  35. 47.
    F. Costigliola, ‘The pursuit of Atlantic community: Nuclear arms, dollars, and Berlin,’ in T. G. Paterson, ed., Kennedy’s Quest for Victory: American Foreign Policy, 1961–1963, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 33–34.Google Scholar
  36. 48.
    M. Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 253–254.Google Scholar
  37. 51.
    D. Marcos, Salazar e de Gaulle: A França e a Questão Colonial Portuguesa (1958–1968), Lisbon, Instituto Diplomâtico, 2007, p. 82.Google Scholar
  38. 54.
    Nogueira, A Resistência, 1988, pp. 304–305.Google Scholar
  39. 58.
    L. Crollen, Portugal, the United States and NATO, Leuven, Leuven University Press, 1973, p. 130.Google Scholar
  40. 59.
    Marcos, Salazar e de Gaulle, 2007, pp. 110–114.Google Scholar
  41. 64.
    Nogueira, A Resistência, 1988, pp. 303–304.Google Scholar
  42. 65.
    A. M. Fonseca, A Torça das Armas: O Apoio da Republica Tederal da Alemanha ao Estado Novo, 1958–1968, Lisbon, Institute Diplomático, 2007, pp. 94, 127–30.Google Scholar
  43. 70.
    Crollen, Portugal, the United States and NATO, 1973, p. 131.Google Scholar
  44. 71.
    Fonseca, A Torça das Armas, 2007, pp. 75–6, 161–9.Google Scholar
  45. 73.
    Fonseca, A Torça das Armas, 2007, p. 161.Google Scholar
  46. 79.
    NARA, DSLF 68D401, Entry 5296, Box 6, EUR/SPP, Message from USARMA, Lisbon to ACSI, DA, 19 June 1964. See also Crollen, Portugal, the United States and Nato, 1973, p. 132.Google Scholar
  47. 84.
    Nogueira, Diâlogos Interditos, 1979, pp. 163–166.Google Scholar
  48. 86.
    Nogueira, A Resistência, 1988, pp. 301–302.Google Scholar
  49. See also A. Telo, ‘As guerras de Africa e a mudança nos apoios internacionais de Portugal’, Revista de História das Ideias, 16, 1994, pp. 347–369;Google Scholar
  50. Pinto, O Fim do Império Português, 2001.Google Scholar
  51. 87.
    W. A. Nielsen, The Great Powers and Africa, New York, NY, Praeger, 1969, pp. 288–291.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Luís Nuno Rodrigues 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luís Nuno Rodrigues

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations