Bicultural Practice: Beyond Mere Tokenism

  • Anaru Eketone
  • Shayne Walker


Bicultural work, in the context of the peoples of Aotearoa/New Zealand, is a complex and multifaceted subject, focused on relationships between indigenous Māori and nonindigenous Pākehā (white New Zealanders), as well as relationships across different Māori groups. It brings together indigenous and nonindigenous knowledge and practices that enhance people’s well-being. It is crucially concerned with being culturally responsive and sensitive. This chapter draws on the example of New Zealand, where sociology students have often suffered from what Tolich (2002) called “Pakeha paralysis”—avoidance by Pākehā of Māori frameworks, worldviews, and practice models, and avoidance of Māori clients or research participants. This chapter will consider the definitions, origins, relationships, and practice of biculturalism that are relevant to social work and sociology.


Social Work Social Policy Journal Cultural Literacy Social Work Practice Child Welfare Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kate van Heugten and Anita Gibbs 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anaru Eketone
  • Shayne Walker

There are no affiliations available

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