Advertisement

Social Visibility and Perceptual Normativity

  • Thiemo Breyer
Part of the New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science book series (NDPCS)

Abstract

As some phenomenologists have argued, normativity starts at the level of, or is embedded in, the sphere of perception, thus being neither in the first place a network of explicitly formulated rules, nor a set of cognitive acts of attribution and deliberation. Husserl, in his genetic-transcendental project of Formal and Transcendental Logic or Experience and Judgment, and Merleau-Ponty, in his Phenomenology of Perception, emphasize that any propositional expression with its appeal to a measure of truth and falsity only gains experiential relevance and communicative plausibility through recourse to perception and sensorial receptivity.1 The emerging question of how the normative is concretely intertwined with the perceptual can be studied in the domain of habits, for instance, where we can easily notice how sociocultural norms shape the way we perceive the world. The normality and style of looking at things and persons, of paying or not paying attention to them, is part of our everyday interactions, and it is often hard to say which habitual elements have developed out of conventional linguistic instruction (e.g. table manners) or out of idiosyncratic preferences in sensory stimuli (e.g. certain colors or shapes). 2 In the following, I will focus on the ways that norms and habits shape the way we perceive other social agents and how we interact with them, looking at different types of visibility and invisibility of self and other.

Keywords

Attentional Behavior Social Visibility Transcendental Logic Sociocultural Norm Perceptual Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alloa, E. (2010) ‘Par-delà la reconnaissance. L’attention comme paradigme pour une éthique asymétrique’, ALTER. Revue de phénoménologie, 17, 125–41.Google Scholar
  2. Avenanti, A., Sirigu, A., Aglioti, S.M. (2010) ‘Racial bias reduces empathic sensori-motor resonance with other-race pain’, Current Biology, 20 (11), 1018–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayertz, K. (2012) Der aufrechte Gang. Eine Geschichte des anthropologischen Denkens (München: C.H. Beck).Google Scholar
  4. Bentham, J. (1791) Panopticon; or, the Inspection-House (London: T. Payne).Google Scholar
  5. Bischof-Köhler, D. (2011) Soziale Entwicklung in Kindheit und Jugend. Bindung, Empathie, Theory of Mind (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer).Google Scholar
  6. Bischof-Köhler, D. (2012) ‘Empathy and self-recognition in phylogenetic and ontogenetic perspective’, Emotion Review, 4, 40–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blankenburg, W. (1991) ‘Perspektivität und Wahn’ in W. Blankenburg (ed.) Wahn und Perspektivität. Störungen im Realitätsbezug des Menschen und ihre Therapie (Stuttgart: Enke), pp. 4–28.Google Scholar
  8. Blumenberg, H. (1989) Höhlenausgänge (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).Google Scholar
  9. Blumenberg, H. (2002) Zu den Sachen und zurück, ed. by M. Sommer (Frankfurt am Main: Suhkamp).Google Scholar
  10. Blumenberg, H. (2006) Beschreibung des Menschen, ed. by M. Sommer (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).Google Scholar
  11. Breyer, T. (2011) Attentionalität und Intentionalität. Grundzüge einer phänomenologisch-kognitionswissenschaftlichen Theorie der Aufmerksamkeit (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink).Google Scholar
  12. Breyer, T. (2013) ‘Empathie und ihre Grenzen: Diskursive Vielfalt–phänomenale Einheit?’ in T. Breyer (ed.) Grenzen der Empathie. Philosophie, psychologische und anthropologische Perspektiven (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink), pp. 7–36.Google Scholar
  13. Breyer, T. (2015) Verkörperte Intersubjektivität und Empathie. Philosophisch-anthropologische Untersuchungen (Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann).Google Scholar
  14. Brighenti, A. (2007) ‘Visibility: a category for the social sciences’, Current Sociology, 55 (3), 323–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Kurzban, R. (2003) ‘Perceptions of race’, Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 173–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crowell, S. (2013) Normativity and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Därmann, I. (2005) Fremde Monde der Vernunft. Die ethnologische Provokation der Philosophie (München: Wilhelm Fink).Google Scholar
  18. Dennett, D.C. (1981) ‘Conditions of personhood’ in Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 267–85.Google Scholar
  19. Ellison, R. (1952) Invisible Man (New York, NY: Random House).Google Scholar
  20. Evans, D. (2006) An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  21. Feagin, J.R., Vera, H., Batur, P. (2001) White Racism: The Basics (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  22. Foucault, M. (1995) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Doubleday).Google Scholar
  23. Fuchs, T. (2013) ‘Depression, intercorporeality, and interaffectivity’, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 20 (7–8), 219–38.Google Scholar
  24. Fuchs, T., Koch, S. (2014) ‘Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved’, Frontiers in Psychology. Psychology for Clinical Settings, 5, 1–12.Google Scholar
  25. Gallagher, S. (2015) ‘The practice of thinking: between Dreyfus and McDowell’ in T. Breyer, C. Gutland (eds) Phenomenology of Thinking: Philosophical Investigations into the Character of Cognitive Experiences (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  26. Goodenough, J. (1997) ‘The achievement of personhood’, Ratio, 10 (2), 141–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gurwitsch, A. (1964) The Field of Consciousness (Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press).Google Scholar
  28. Honneth, A. (2003) Unsichtbarkeit. Stationen einer Theorie der Intersubjektivität (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).Google Scholar
  29. Honneth, A., Margalit, A. (2001) ‘Recognition’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 75, 111–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Husserl, E. (1973) Zur Phänomenologie der Intersubjektivität: Texte aus dem Nachlass.Dritter Teil. 1929–35, Volume 3, edited by I. Kern (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Husserl, E. (1982) Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy, First Book: General Introduction to a Pure Phenomenology, trans. by F. Kersten (Dordrecht: Kluwer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Husserl, E. (2001) Analyses Concerning Passive and Active Synthesis: Lectures on Transcendental Logic, trans. by A.J. Steinbock (Dordrecht: Kluwer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. James, W. (1890) The Principles of Psychology (New York: Holt).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kant, I. (2006) Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, ed. by R.B. Louden (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  35. Kenward, B., Karlsson, M., Persson, J. (2011) ‘Over-imitation is better explained by norm learning than by distorted causal learning’, Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 278 (1709), 1239–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lacan, J. (1994) Le séminaire de Jacques Lacan 4: La relation d’object (1956–1957) (Paris: Éditions du Seuil).Google Scholar
  37. Laitinen, A. (2007) ‘Sorting out aspects of personhood: capacities, normativity and recognition’, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14 (5–7), 248–70.Google Scholar
  38. Legrand, D. (2010) ‘Myself with no body? Body, bodily-consciousness and self-consciousness’ in S. Gallagher, D. Schmicking (eds) Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science (New York: Springer), pp. 181–200.Google Scholar
  39. Lewis, M. (1997) ‘The self in self-conscious emotions’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 818, 119–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MacKinnon, R. (1997) ‘Virtual rape’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2 (4).Google Scholar
  41. McMahan, J. (2003) The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  42. Mead, G.H. (1934) Mind, Self, and Society From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Chicago: Chicago University Press).Google Scholar
  43. Müller, O. (2011). ‘“Die res cogitans ist eine res extensa”. Sichtbarkeit, Selbsterhaltung und Fremderfahrung in Hans Blumenbergs phänomenologischer Anthropologie’ in M. Moxter (ed.) Erinnerung an das Humane. Beiträge zur phänomenologischen Anthropologie Hans Blumenbergs (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck), pp. 15–38.Google Scholar
  44. Nieme, L. (2006) Pour une éthique de la ‘visibilité’ dans l’invisible (Paris: Harmattan).Google Scholar
  45. Nussbaum, M.C. (2008) Upheavals of Thought. The Intelligence of Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  46. Rietveld, E. (2008) ‘Situated normativity: The normative aspect of embodied cognition in unreflective action’, Mind, 117, 975–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roskies, A. (2007) ‘The illusion of personhood’, American Journal of Bioethics, 7 (1), 55–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sartre, J.-P. (1969) Being and Nothingness, trans. by H.E. Barnes (New York: Washington Square Press).Google Scholar
  49. Schaffer, J. (2008) Ambivalenzen der Sichtbarkeit. Über die visuellen Strukturen der Anerkennung (Bielefeld: Transcript).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schear, J.K. (ed.) (2013) Mind, Reason, and Being-in-the-world: The McDowell-Dreyfus Debate (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  51. Schütz, A., Luckmann, T. (2003) The Structures of the Life-World, Volume 1 (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press).Google Scholar
  52. Stawarska, B. (2009) Between You and I: Dialogical Phenomenology (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press).Google Scholar
  53. Stawarska, B. (2010) ‘Mutual gaze and intersubjectivity’ in S. Gallagher, D. Schmicking (eds) Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science (New York: Springer), pp. 269–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Taylor, C. (1985) Human Agency and Language: Philosophical Papers I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Taylor, C. (1989) Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  56. Velleman, J.D. (2006) Self to Self: Selected Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  57. Wahl, F. (1981) ‘Die Philosophie diesseits und jenseits des Strukturalismus’ in Einführung in den Strukturalismus (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp), pp. 327–480.Google Scholar
  58. Waldenfels, B. (1997–9) Studien zur Phänomenologie des Fremden, 4 volumes (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).Google Scholar
  59. Waldenfels, B. (2005) ‘Wahrnehmung und Aufmerksamkeit beim frühen Husserl’, Philosophische Rundschau, 52, 302–10.Google Scholar
  60. Wehrle, M. (2010) ‘Die Normativität der Erfahrung. Überlegungen zur Beziehung von Normalität und Aufmerksamkeit bei E. Husserl’, Husserl Studies, 26, 167–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yarbus, A. (1967) Eye Movements and Vision (New York: Plenum Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zahavi, D. (2014) Self and Other: Exploring Subjectivity, Empathy, and Shame (Oxford: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Žižek, S. (1997) The Plague of Fantasies (London: Verso).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Thiemo Breyer 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thiemo Breyer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations