The City in Urban Poverty pp 85-110

Part of the EADI Global Development Series book series (EADI) | Cite as

Constructing Informality and Ordinary Places: A Place-Making Approach to Urban Informal Settlements

  • Melanie Lombard

Abstract

Since the 1960s, understandings of urban informal settlements have constantly evolved. Almost since this urban phenomenon was first observed — coinciding with patterns of industrialisation and urbanisation in 1950s Latin America — it has been accompanied by debates about the meaning and extent of urban informality, understood as closely linked to urban poverty. Although many advances have been made in terms of theoretical understandings of these places, and the policy responses that ensue, they are still subject to disproportionate levels of marginalisation, including effects ranging from discrimination to eviction and displacement. Some observers suggest that this is reflective of critical gaps in urban theory, deriving from the dominance of particular epistemologies and methodologies within urban studies, which have led to the prevalence of ‘apocalyptic and dystopian narratives of the slum’1 (Roy, 2011: 224). Such accounts reveal the limits of knowledge about urban informality, based as it is on certain privileged circuits of knowledge production which frame urban informal settlements in particular ways. This may lead to ‘sanctioned ignorance’ (Spivak, 1999 in Roy, 2011: 228), the unseeing of the productive spaces of informality that constitute significant swathes of today’s cities; or to stereotyping of particular places and people in terms of their ‘illegal’, ‘illegitimate’ status in the urban environment. Both processes contribute to the marginalisation of urban informal settlements.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, S. (1964). Man’s Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Agnew, J. A. (2005). Space: Place, in: P. Cloke and R. Johnston (eds), Spaces of Geographical Thought: Deconstructing Human Geography’s Binaries. London: Sage, 81–96.Google Scholar
  3. AlSayyad, N. (2004). Urban informality as a ‘new’ way of life, in: A. Roy and N. Alsayyad (eds), Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia. Oxford: Lexington, 7–30.Google Scholar
  4. Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (2004). The ‘emancipatory’ city?, in: L. Lees (ed.), The Emancipatory City? Paradoxes and Possibilities. London: Sage, 231–235.Google Scholar
  5. Angotti, T. (2013). Urban Latin America: Violence, enclaves and struggles for land.Latin American Perspectives, 40(2): 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Auyero, J. (1999a). ‘This is a lot like the Bronx, isn’t it?’ Lived experiences of marginality in an Argentine slum’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(1): 45–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Auyero, J. (1999b). ‘From the client’s point (s) of view’: How poor people perceive and evaluate political clientelism. Theory and Society, 28(2): 297–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayat, A. (2004). Globalization and the politics of the informals in the Global South, in: A. Roy and N. Alsayyad (eds), Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia. Lanham, USA: Lexington Books, 79–102.Google Scholar
  9. Bayón, M. and Sara ví, G. (2012). The cultural dimensions of urban fragmentation: Segregation, sociability, and inequality in Mexico City.Latin American Perspectives, 40(2): 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bromley, R. (1978). The urban informal sector: Why is it worth discussing? World Development, 6(9/10): 1033–1039.Google Scholar
  11. Bruce Hull IV, R., Lam, M. and Vigo, G. (1994). Place identity: Symbols of ?elfin the urban fabric.Landscape and Urban Planning, 28: 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burkner, H. (2006). Place-making. PlaceMeg Concept Guidance Paper. Project Workshop on Methods and Concepts, 20–22 February, Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, H. (2002). Planning: An idea of value.Town Planning Review, 73(3): 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castells, M. (1998). End of Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Cor dera, R., Ramirez Kuri, P. and Ziccardi, A. (eds) (2008). Pobreza, Desigualdad ? Exclusion Social en la Ciudad del Siglo XXI. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  16. Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, M. (2006). Planet of Slums. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  18. D e Certeau, M. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  19. D e Soto, H. (2000). The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere else. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  20. Fallon, P. and Lucas, R. (2002). The impact of financial crises on labor markets, household incomes and poverty: A review of evidence.The World Bank Research Observer, 17(1): 21–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fernandes, E. (2011). Regularization of Informal Settlements in Latin America. Policy Focus Report. Cambridge, Mass.: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.Google Scholar
  22. Foucault, M. [1982] (2002). The subject and power, in: J. Faubion (ed.), Michel Foucault: Power. London: Penguin Books, 326–348.Google Scholar
  23. Friedmann, J. (2007). Reflections on place and place-making in the cities of China.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(2): 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilbert, A. (1994) The Latin American City. London: Latin American Bureau.Google Scholar
  25. Gilbert, A. (2007). The return of the slum: Does language matter? International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(4): 697–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goodman, R. (1972). After the Planners. Harmondsworth: Pelican.Google Scholar
  27. Gough, K. and Kellett, P. (2001). Housing consolidation and home-based income generation: Evidence from self-help settlements in two Colombian cities.Cities, 18(4): 235–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, P. (2002). The city of sweat equity, in: P. Hall, Cities of Tomorrow. Oxford: Blackwell, 262–293.Google Scholar
  29. Hamdi, N. (2010). The Placemaker’s Guide to Building Community. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  30. Har doy, J. and Satterthwaite, D. (1989). Squatter Citizen. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  31. Harner, J. (2001). Place identity and copper mining in Sonora, Mexico.Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91(4): 660–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hernandez, F., Kellett, P. and Allen, L. (2010). Rethinking the Informal City: Critical Perspectives from Latin America. Oxford: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  33. Higgins, B. (1990). Geographical revolutions and revolutionary geographies: Nature, space and place in the urban development of Nicaragua.Trialog, 26:13-20.Google Scholar
  34. H oil ? way, L. and Hubbard, P. (2001). People and Place: The Extraordinary Geographies of Everyday Life. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  35. Huchzermeyer, M. (2004). Unlawful Occupation: Informal Settlements and Urban Policy in South Africa and Brazil. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hyrapiet, S. and Greiner, A. (2012). Calcutta’s hand-pulled rickshaws: Cultural politics and place-making in a globalizing city The Geographical Review, 102(A): 407–426.Google Scholar
  37. Jones, P. and Evans, J. (2012). Rescue geography: Place-making, affect and regeneration.Urban Studies, 49(11): 2315–2330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kellett, P. (2002). The construction of home in the informal city, journal of Romance Studies, 2(3): 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lefebvre, H. ([1967] 1996). The right to the city in: E. Kofman and E. Lebas (eds), Writings on Cities. Oxford: Blackwell, 63–181.Google Scholar
  40. Legg, S. and McFarlane, C. (2008). Ordinary urban spaces: Between postcoloni-alism and development.Environment and Planning A, 40: 6–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis, O. (1967). La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty — San Juan and New York. London: Seeker and Warburg.Google Scholar
  42. Lloyd, P. (1979). Slums of Hope? Shanty Towns of the Third World. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lombard, M. (2013). Citizen participation in urban governance in the context of democratization: Evidence from low-income neighbourhoods in Mexico.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37(1): 135–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lombard, M. (2014). Constructing ordinary place: Place-making in urban informal settlements in Mexico.Progress in Planning, 94: 1–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lomnitz, L. (1977). Networks and Marginality: Life in a Mexican Shanty Town. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mabin, A. (2014). Grounding Southern city theory in time and place, in: S. Pameli and S. Oldfield (eds), The Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Mangin, W. (1967). Latin American squatter settlements: A problem and a solution.Latin American Studies, 2: 65–98.Google Scholar
  48. Massey D. (1991). A global sense of place.Marxism Today, June: 24–29.Google Scholar
  49. McFarlane, C. (2010). The comparative city: Knowledge, learning, urbanism.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(4): 725–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McFarlane, C. (2012). Rethinking informality: Politics, crisis, and the city.Planning Theory and Practice, 13(1): 89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miranda, L. (2002). A new mystery from de Soto? A review of The Mystery of CapitalGoogle Scholar
  52. Hernando de Soto, 2001. Environment and Urbanization, 14(1): 263–264Google Scholar
  53. Mitlin, D. and Satterthwaite, D. (2013). Urban Poverty in the Global South, Scale and Nature. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Moser, C. (2009). Ordinary Families, Extraordinary Lives: Assets and Poverty Reduction in Guayaquil, 1978–2004. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  55. Moser, C. and Peake, L. (eds) (1987). Women, Human Settlements and Housing. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  56. Myers, G. (2003). Verandahs of Power, Colonialism and Space in Urban Africa. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Peattie, L. R. (1970). The View from the Barrio. Michigan, MI: Ann Arbor/University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  58. Peattie, L. (1998). Convivial cities, in: M. Douglass and J. Friedmann (eds), Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age. Chichester: John Wiley, 247–53.Google Scholar
  59. Per ?man, J. (1976). The Myth of Marginality: Urban Poverty and Politics in Rio de Janeiro. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  60. Porter, L. and Barber., A. (2006). Closing time: The meaning of place and state-led gentrification in Birmimgham’s Eastside.City, 10(2): 215–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Potts, D. (2012). Challenging the myths of urban dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa: The evidence from Nigeria.World Development, 40(7): 1382–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pred, A. (1984). Place as historically contingent process: Structuration and the time-geography of becoming places.Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74(2): 279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rao, V. (2006). Slum as theory: The South/Asian city and globalisation.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30(1); 225–232.Google Scholar
  64. Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pion.Google Scholar
  65. Robinson, J. (2002). Global and world cities: A view from off the map.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26(3): 531–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robinson, J. (2006). Ordinary Cities: Between Modernity and Development. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Rodgers, D., Beall, J. and Kanbur, R. (eds) (2012). Latin American Urban Development into the 21st Century: Towards a Renewed Perspective on the City. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  68. Roy, A. (2005). Urban informality: Toward an epistemology of planning.Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(2): 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roy, A. (2011). Slumdog cities: Rethinking subaltern urbanism.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35(2): 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schneekloth, L. and Shibley, R. (1995). Place-making: The Art and Practice of Building Communities. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  71. Shaip, J. P., Routledge, P., Philo, C. and Paddison, R. (2000). Entanglements of Power: Geographies of Domination/Resistance. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Shatkin, G. (2004). Planning to forget: Informal settlements as ‘forgotten places’ in globalising metro Manila.Urban Studies, 41(12): 2469–2484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Simone, A. (2004). For the City Yet to Come, Changing African Life in Four Cities. London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Stein, A. (1989). The ‘tugurios’ of San Salvador: A place to live, work and struggle.Environment and Urbanization, 1(2): 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tuan, Y.-F. (1977). Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  76. Turner, J. (1968). Uncontrolled urban settlement: Problems and policies, in: G. Breese (ed.), The City in Newly Developing Countries: Readings on Urbanism and Urbanisation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  77. Turner, J. (1972). Housing as a verb, in: J. Turner and R. Fichter (eds), Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process. New York: Collier-Macmillan, 148–175.Google Scholar
  78. Turner, J. and Fichter, R. (eds) (1972). Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process. New York: Collier-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  79. UN-Habitat. (2003). The Challenge of the Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme.Google Scholar
  80. Varley, A. (2007). Home and Identity: Housing Narratives from Urban Mexico. Paper given at postgraduate workshop, 11–13 September, Department of Geography of the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Trondheim.Google Scholar
  81. Varley, A. (2013). Postcolonialising informality? Environment and Planning D, 31(1): 4–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Walker, A. (2001). The Social Context of Built Form: The Case of Informal Housing Production in Mexico City. DPU Working Paper. London: Development Planning Unit, University College London.Google Scholar
  83. Ward, P. (ed.) (1982). Self-Help Housing: A Critique. London: Mansell.Google Scholar
  84. Watson, V. (2011). Engaging with citizenship and urban struggle through an informality lens.Planning Theory and Practice, 12(1): 150–153.Google Scholar
  85. Wratten, E. (1995). Conceptualizing urban poverty.Environment and Urbanization, 7(1): 11–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Melanie Lombard 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Lombard

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations