Smart, but is It Sustainable? The Importance of Reconciling Non-Technical Concerns in Grid-Development Policies
Electricity grids in Europe are currently undergoing numerous changes. New grid development projects are proposed everywhere. This is partly caused by the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) directive of 2009 that specifies national targets that all countries must achieve by 2020. In Norway the on-shore renewable share is already high — around 60 percent, but as an EEA (European Economic Area) country Norway has agreed to increase this share to 67.5 percent. In Sweden the target is 49 percent, but the government has published the ambition to reach a renewable target beyond 50 percent by 2020. As a consequence, a number of efforts are being made to stimulate renewables. From 2012, a joint certificate market has been established between Norway and Sweden and, for 2020, a target has been set of 26.4 TWh of renewable electricity production. The political commitment to be submitted in accordance with the RES Directive targets will be shared equally between Norway and Sweden, with 13.2 TWh each, but given the market orientation of the policy scheme the actual investment will be located where investors find it most attractive. There are a lot of opinions and much public discussion surrounding renewables (Toke, 2005; Wüstenhagen et al., 2007), but without well-functioning electricity grids, electricity will never reach the market. In the last few years, investments in the upgrade and development of transmission lines have notably increased.
KeywordsSmart Grid Electricity Grid Customer Engagement Central Grid Phasor Measurement Unit
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Angell, S.I. and O.A. Brekke (2011) Frå kraft versus natur til miljøvenleg energi? Rokkan-rapport 3 2011 (Bergen: UNI Research Rokkansenteret).Google Scholar
- Arentsen, M., R. Kemp and E. Luiten (2002) ‘Technological change and innovation for climate protection’, in M. Kok, W. Vermeulen, A. Faaij and D. de Jager (eds) Global Warming and Social Innovation (London: Earthscan).Google Scholar
- Brekke, O. and H. Sataøen (2012) ‘Fra samkjøring til overkjøring?’, Plan, 06/2012.Google Scholar
- Devine-Wright, P. (2011) Renewable Energy and the Public (London: Earthscan).Google Scholar
- Economist, The (2013b) ‘Briefing: European Utilities: How to Lose Half a Trillion Euros’, October 12, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21587782-europes-electricity-providers-face-existential-threat-how-lose-half-trillion-euros.
- Hughes, T.P. (1993) Networks of Power (London: Johns Hopkins Press).Google Scholar
- Högselius, P. and A. Kaijser (2007) När folkhemselen blev internationell (Stockholm: SNS Förlag).Google Scholar
- Jakobsson, E. (1996) Industrialisering av älvar (Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet).Google Scholar
- Knapp, E .D. and R. Samani (2013) Applied Cyber Security and the Smart Grid (Waltham, MA: Syngress).Google Scholar
- Lafferty, W.M., O.M. Larsen and A. Ruud (2008) ‘Norway’, in A. Jordan and A. Lenschow (eds) Innovation in Environmental Policy (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar).Google Scholar
- Meld. St. 14 (2011–2012) Vi bygger Norge — om utbygging av strømnettet . Olje- og energidepartementet. Oslo: White paper no 14.Google Scholar
- Miljöbalken (2009) ‘Lag om ändring i miljöbalken’, Svensk författningssamling, 652, http://www.lagboken.se/dokument/Andrings-SFS/362779/SFS-2009_652-Lag-om-andring-i-miljobalken?id=37605, date accessed December 8, 2011.
- Rokkan, S. (1967) ‘Geography, religion and social class’, in S.M. Lipset and S. Rokkan (eds) Party Systems and Voter Alignments (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
- Ruud, A., J.J. Kielland Haug and W.M. Lafferty (2011) ‘“Case Hardanger”’, Rapport TR A7104 and CEDREN DO.4.1, www.cedren.no (home page), date accessed October 23, 2013.
- Simon, H.A. (1957) Models of Man (New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
- Svenska Kraftnät (2013) Perspektivplan 2025 – en utvecklingsplan för det svenska stam-nätet, http://www.svk.se/Publicerat/Rapporter-remissvar/Rapporter/, date accessed October 23, 2013.
- Thue, L. (1995) ‘Electricity Rules: The Formation and Development of the Nordic Electricity Regimes’, in A. Kaijser and M. Hedin (eds) Nordic Energy Systems (Canton, MA: Science History Publications), pp. 11–31.Google Scholar
- Toke, D. (2005) ‘Explaining Wind Power Planning Outcomes’, Energy Policy, 33(12), 1527–39.Google Scholar