Advertisement

Formal and Informal Governance in the UN Peacebuilding Commission

Chapter
Part of the Governance and Limited Statehood book series (GLS)

Abstract

Post-conflict peacebuilding — understood as efforts undertaken at the end of a civil war to create conditions under which peace is consolidated and violence will not recur (Boutros-Ghali 1992: 15) — has traditionally been a matter of states and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs).1 National governments consult with their international partners to develop and implement projects aimed at the political, economic, and social reconstruction of war-torn societies. Non-state actors, particularly local civil society organizations and armed groups, are usually considered addressees of post-conflict recovery programs. The new generation of peacebuilding operations, however, goes beyond this intergovernmental approach (Otobo 2009, Paris 2009, Paris and Sisk 2009). Not only a variety of actors including the United Nations (UN) but also many Western governments and donor organizations have acknowledged that the exclusion of non-state actors is problematic, and they have started to promote local ownership as a new guiding principle of post-conflict governance (e.g. OECD Paris Declaration 2005). As a result, there has been a rapid growth in the involvement of non-state actors in post-conflict peacebuilding both at the international and domestic level. The frequency, scope, and depth of non-state-actor involvement has changed, ranging from assistance in the implementation of projects to participation in decision-making and monitoring.

Keywords

Civil Society United Nations Social Network Analysis Civil Society Organization Informal Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. D. Avant, M. Finnemore and S. Sell (2010) Who Governs the Globe? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. D. Avant and O. Westerwinter (2012) The New Power Politics: Networks, Governance, and Global Security, University of Denver: Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  3. A.-L. Barabasi and R. Albert (1999) ‘Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks’, Science, 286, 286–509.Google Scholar
  4. P. Bonacich (1987) ‘Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures’, American Journal of Sociology, 92, 92–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. S.P. Borgatti and M.G. Everett (1999) ‘Models of Core/Periphery Structures’, Social Networks, 21, 21–375.Google Scholar
  6. S.P. Borgatti, M.G. Everett and L.C. Freeman (2002) Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis (Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies).Google Scholar
  7. B. Boutros-Ghali (1992) ‘An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping’, A/47/277-S/24111, 17 June 1992.Google Scholar
  8. R.S. Burt (1983) ‘Network Data from Informant Interviews’, in R.S. Burt and M.J. Minor (eds) Applied Network Analysis. A Methodological Introduction (Hills: Sage), pp. 133–57.Google Scholar
  9. C.T. Butts (2010) SNA: Tools for Social Network Analysis. Version 2.2-0, http://erzuli.ss.uci.edu/R.stuff (online available), last access 13 June 2012.
  10. C.T. Butts (2009) ‘Social Network Analysis: A Methodological Introduction’, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 11–13.Google Scholar
  11. C. Carpenter (2011) ‘Vetting the Advocacy Agenda: Network Centrality and the Paradox of Weapons Norms’, International Organization, 65, 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. P.J. Carrington, J. Scott and S. Wasserman (2005) Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. A. Cooley and J. Ron (2002) ‘The NGO Scramble: Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action’, International Security, 27, 27–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. L.C. Freeman (1978) ‘Centrality in Social Networks. Conceptual Clarification’, Social Networks, 1, 1–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. S.E. Goddard (2009) ‘Brokering Change: Networks and Entrepreneurs in International Politics’, International Theory, 1, 1–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Government of the Central African Republic (2008) ‘Communication of the Government of the Central African Republic’, New York, 8 October 2008.Google Scholar
  17. E.M. Hafner-Burton and A.H. Montgomery (2010) ‘Centrality in Politics: How Networks Confer Influence’ Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Political Net-works Conference, NC: Duke University.Google Scholar
  18. G. Helmke and S. Levitsky (2004) ‘Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda’, Perspectives on Politics, 2, 2–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. R. Jenkins (2008) ‘The UN Peacebuilding Commission and the Dissemination of International Norms’, Crisis States Working Paper Series 2, June 2008.Google Scholar
  20. M.E. Keck and K. Sikkink (1998) Activists Beyond Borders. Advocacy Networks in International Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  21. D.A. Lake and W.H. Wong (2009) ‘The Politics of Networks. Interests, Power, and Human Rights Norms’, in M. Kahler (ed.) Networked Politics. Agency, Power, and Governance (Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press), pp. 127–50.Google Scholar
  22. S. Levitsky and D. Slater (2012) ‘Ruling Politics: The Formal and Informal Foundations of Institutional Reform’, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University: Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  23. P.V. Marsden (2005) ‘Recent Developments in Network Measurement’, in P.J. Carrington, J. Scott and S. Wasserman (eds) Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 8–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. E.E. Otobo (2009) ‘A UN Architecture to Build Peace in Post-Conflict Situations. Development Outreach’, World Bank Institute.Google Scholar
  25. R. Paris (2009) ‘Understanding the “Coordination Problem” in Postwar Statebuilding’, in R. Paris and T.D. Sisk (eds) The Dilemmas of Statebuilding. Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 53–78.Google Scholar
  26. R. Paris and T.D. Sisk (2009) ‘Introduction. Understanding the Contradictions of Postwar Statebuilding’, in R. Paris and T.D. Sisk (eds) The Dilemmas of Statebuilding. Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  27. Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) (2009) ‘PBC Burundi CSM, Report of the Chair’s Visit to Bujumbura’, 25–27 May 2009, http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/cscs/bur/pbc_visits/pbc_visit_bdi_25_27_may_09.pdf (online available), last access 01 October 2012.
  28. Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) (2008) ‘Report of the Mission to Central African Republic of the Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission Central African Republic Configuration’, 10–11 July 2008, http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/cscs/ car/pbc_visits/chair_mission_car_10_11_july_2008.pdf (online available), last access 01 October 2012.
  29. Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO) (2007) ‘Draft Concept Note on the Design of Integrated Peacebuilding Strategies’, 26 February 2007, http://www.betterpeace.org/files/IPBS_Concept_Note_26_Feb_2007.pdf (online available), last access 01 October 2012.
  30. Y. Peng (2010) ‘When Formal Laws and Informal Norms Collide: Lineage Networks versus Birth Control Policy in China’, American Journal of Sociology, 116, 116–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. S. Radnitz (2011) ‘Informal Politics and the State’, Comparative Politics, 43, 43–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. W.H. Reinicke and F. Deng (2000) Critical Choices. The United Nations, Networks, and the Future of Global Governance (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre).Google Scholar
  33. A. Scott (2008) ‘The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission: An Early Assessment’, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 4, 4–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. S.J. Stedman (1997) ‘Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes’, International Security, 22, 22–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. R.W. Stone (2011) Controlling Institutions. International Organizations and the Global Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. A.M. Street, H. Mollett and J. Smith (2008) ‘Experiences of the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission in Sierra Leone and Burundi’, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 4, 4–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. K.S. Tsai (2006) ‘Adaptive Informal Institutions and Endogenous Institutional Change’, World Politics, 59, 59–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. S. Wasserman and K. Faust (1994) Social Network Analysis. Methods and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. B. Wellman (1988) ‘Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance’, in B. Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz (eds) Social Structures: A Network Approach (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 19–61.Google Scholar
  40. O. Westerwinter (2012) ‘Networks and the Informal Power Politics of United Nations Peacebuilding’, Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Convention, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  41. H.C. White, S.A. Boorman and R.L. Breiger (1976) ‘Social Structure from Multiple Networks I. Blockmodels of Roles and Positions’, American Journal of Sociology, 81, 81–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. K.D. Wolf (2008) ‘Emerging Patterns of Global Governance: the New Interplay between the State, Business and Civil Society’, in A.G. Scherer and G. Palazzo (eds) Handbook of Research on Global Corporate Citizenship (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), pp. 225–48.Google Scholar
  43. World Federalist Movement-Institute for Global Policy (WFM-IGP) (2006a) ‘Summary of Main Points and Recommendations by NGOs to the Peacebuilding Commission’, 11 October 2006, http://www.betterpeace.org/ files/IGP_Summary_NGO_Brief_PBC_11_Oct_2006.pdf (online available), last access 01 October 2012.
  44. WFM-IGP (2006b) ‘Summary of Main Points and Recommendations by NGOs to the Peacebuilding Commission’, 11 December 2006, http://betterpeace.org/files/IGP_GPPAC_Summary_NGO_Brief_PBC_11_Dec_2006.pdf (online available), last access 01 October 2012.

Copyright information

© Oliver Westerwinter 2013

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations