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One Dao—Many Ways

Daoist Approaches to Religious Diversity
  • Livia Kohn

Abstract

Daoism is a complex religious tradition of manifold levels that encompass philosophical speculation, ritual and organizational structures, as well as self-cultivation and personal spiritual practices. Itself a multifaceted religion, Daoism has always lived and worked in an environment of religious diversity. Even the ancient philosophers formed but one school of many in pre-Han China, and the first organizations that arose in the second-century CE were surrounded by Confucian officialdom and popular religious practices. Over the centuries, Daoists of all kinds continued to interact variously with other creeds and had an especially stormy relationship with the incoming foreign religion of Buddhism.

Keywords

Religious Diversity Seventh Century Philosophical Speculation Middle Kingdom Central Asian State 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    See A. C. Graham, Yin-Yang and the Nature of Correlative Thinking (Singapore: The Institute for East Asian Philosophies, 1986). 3. A good introductory discussion of this concept and its practical application is found inGoogle Scholar
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    Livia Kohn, Health and Long Life: The Chinese Way (Cambridge, MA: Three Pines Press, 2005), 11–12.Google Scholar
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    An easy-to-understand outline of the quantum universe in relation to Daoist worldview appears in Imke Bock-Möbius, Qigong Meets Quantum Physics (Dunedin, FL: Three Pines Press, 2012).Google Scholar
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    This threefold division evolved first at a conference on Daoist identity in 1998. It is explained in more detail in Livia Kohn, Daoism and Chinese Culture (Cambridge, MA: Three Pines Press, 2001), 5–6. Earlier discussions of the differences of philosophical and religious Daoism appear inGoogle Scholar
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    The longevity tradition is the subject of various articles compiled in Livia Kohn, ed., Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies Publications. 1989). A comprehensive collection of longevity materials recently appeared inGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Perry Schmidt-Leukel and Joachim Gentz 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Livia Kohn

There are no affiliations available

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