Advertisement

Conceptual Change in Postwar Sweden: The Marginalization of Assimilation and the Introduction of Integration

  • Mats Wickström
Part of the Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series book series ( CAL)

Abstract

Two of the key concepts in contemporary debates on Nordic multiculturalism are integration and assimilation: two intertwining concepts that float freely between political and scientific discourses and whose meanings are often highly contextual or, notably in daily political rhetoric, muddled. This is especially the case in Sweden, where the negative connotations associated with the word ‘assimilation’ are so strong that politicians and other opinion-makers frown upon the use of the word, leaving the term ‘integration’ as the only acceptable option in discussions about the inclusion of immigrants and the social cohesion of a multi-ethnic society. This in turn loads the term integration with contradictory meanings as some public actors clearly use it as a euphemism for assimilation (Johansson Heinö 2011). This sometimes bewildering use of the term integration can be seen as a problem of Swedish public discourse in need of clarification, but it also invites questions of a historical nature: when and how did the term assimilation, if not necessarily the concept, become marginalized in Swedish public discourse and when and how did the concept of (multicultural) integration, if not necessarily the term, emerge as the new paradigmatic concept?

Keywords

Conceptual Change Immigrant Group Immigration Policy Multicultural Society Swedish Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlvarsson, Lars. 1967. ‘Vi behöver en klar målsättning för svensk minoritetspolitik.’ Fackforeningsrörelsen, 14–15 pp. 46–49.Google Scholar
  2. Arnstberg, Karl-Olov. 1998. Svenskar och zigenare: en etnologisk studie av samspelet över en kulturell gräns. Stockholm: Carlsson.Google Scholar
  3. Berggren, Henrik and Lars Trägårdh. 2006. Är svensken människa? Gemenskap och oberoende i det moderna Sverige. Stockholm: Nordstedt.Google Scholar
  4. Borevi, Karin. 2010. ‘Sverige: mångkulturalismens flaggskepp i Norden.’ pp. 41–130 in Velferdens grenser, edited by G. Brochmann and Anniken Hagelund. Oslo: Universitetforlaget.Google Scholar
  5. Borrie W.D. et.al. 1959. The Cultural Integration of Immigrants. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  6. Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller. 2009. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 4th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Catomeris, Christian. 2004. Det ohyggliga arvet: Sverige och främlingen genom tiderna. Stockholm: Ordfront.Google Scholar
  8. Dagens Nyheter. 1964. ‘Att vara utlänning.’ Newspaper editorial. 24 December.Google Scholar
  9. Dagens Nyheter. 1966. ‘Den finska minoriteten.’ Newspaper editorial. 24 April.Google Scholar
  10. Demker, Marie and Malmström Cecilia. 1999. Ingenmansland? Svensk immigrationspolitik i utrikespolitisk belysning. Lund: Studentlitteratur.Google Scholar
  11. Expressen. 1971. ‘Invandrarna behövs — men är de välkomna?’. Newspaper editorial. 4 July.Google Scholar
  12. Farr, James. 1989. ‘Understanding Conceptual Change Politically.’ pp. 24–50 in Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, edited by T. Ball, J. Farr and R. L. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Frank, Denis. 2005. Staten, företagen och arbetskraftsinvandringen: en studie av invandringspolitiken i Sverige och rektyteringen av utländska arbetare 1960–1972. Växjö: Växjö University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Glazer, Nathan. 1983. Ethnic dilemmas 1964–1982. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. The Government of Sweden. 1974. The Final Report of the Commission on Immigration (SOU 1974: 69). Stockholm: Liber Förlag.Google Scholar
  16. Gottfarb, Inga. 1964. ‘Utlänningarnas anpassningsproblem’. Dagens Nyheter, 28 October.Google Scholar
  17. Hammar, Tomas. 1964. Sverige åt svenskarna: invandringspolitik, utlänningskontroll och asylrätt 1900–1932. Stockholm: Caslon Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hedetoft, Ulf. 2010. ‘Denmark versus multiculturalism.’ pp. 111–129 in The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices, edited by S. Vertovec and S. Wessendorf. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Helander, Gunnar. 1971. ‘Känsloladdad syn på språk.’ Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning, 6 April.Google Scholar
  20. Helander, Voitto and Jan Johansson. 1998. Det statliga kommittéväsendet:en jämforelse mellan Sverige och Finland. Åbo: Åbo Akademi.Google Scholar
  21. Högerpartiets kommitté för minoritets- och invandringsfrågor. 1968. Minoritetsoch invandringspolitik. Stockholm.Google Scholar
  22. Johansson, Rune. 1968. ‘IU:s direktiv.’ pp. 447–452 in The Final Report of the Commission on Immigration. Stockholm: Liber Förlag.Google Scholar
  23. Johansson Heinö, Andreas. 2011. Integration or Assimilation? An Assessment of the Swedish Integration Debate. Stockholm: Timbro.Google Scholar
  24. Judisk Krönika. 1965. ‘Kritik av Sveriges utlänningspolitik.’ 34(8): 204–205.Google Scholar
  25. Kivisto, Peter and Thomas Faist. 2010. Beyond a Border: The Causes and Consequences of Contemporary Immigration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage/Pine Forge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kymlicka, Will. 2007. ‘The Canadian Model of Diversity in a Comparative Perspective.’ pp. 61–90 in Multiculturalism and the Canadian Constitution, edited by S. Tierney. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  27. Küng, Andres. 1974. Sverige, Sverige, Fosterland, Stockholm: Bonnier.Google Scholar
  28. Liberles Weiss, Adina. 1984. ‘The Jewish Community of Sweden.’ pp. 1–55, in The Jewish Communities of Scandinavia, edited by Elazar Daniel J., Liberles Weiss Adina, Werner Simcha. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  29. Lundquist, Agne and Karin Busch. 1966. Främling i Sverige: om ungerska flyktingars anpassning. Uppsala: Argos.Google Scholar
  30. Myrdal, Alva and Gunnar Myrdal. 1934. Kris i befolkningsfrågan. Stockholm: Bonnier.Google Scholar
  31. Olof Palme’s archives, volume 2.4.0: 006. Letter from David Schwartz, 10 December 1965.Google Scholar
  32. Palme, Olof. 1965. ‘Vi och utlänningarna’. Radio speech$125 December. Retrieved August 2011 (http://www.dn.se/kultur-noje/debatt-essa/vi-och-utlanningarna).Google Scholar
  33. The Peoples Party. 1971. Motion 134, angående invandrarnas situation.Google Scholar
  34. Rebas, Hain. 1984. ‘En minoritet organiserar sig — esternas i Sverige arbete för att bevara och utveckla sin kultur.’ pp. 194–227 in De första båtflyktingarna: en antologi om balterna i Sverige, edited by L-G Eriksson. Norrköping: Statens invandrarverk.Google Scholar
  35. Regeringens proposition 1975: 26 Riktlinjer för invandrar- och minoritetspolitiken m.m.Google Scholar
  36. Riksdagen. 1975. Riksdagens protokoll 1975, 78–86, nr 80.Google Scholar
  37. Rokkan, Stein. 1971. ‘Immigranterna och det etablerade partisystemet’. pp. 209–223 in Identitet och minoritet: teori och politik i dagens Sverige, edited by D. Schwarz. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
  38. Schwarz, David. 1964. ‘Utlänningsproblemet i Sverige’. Dagens Nyheter, 21 October.Google Scholar
  39. Schwarz, David and Voldemar Kiviaed. 1965. ‘Skall invandraren anpassas till döds?’, Liberal debatt, 18(8): 15–19.Google Scholar
  40. Skinner, Quentin. 2002. Visions on Politics: Regarding Method. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sohlberg, Peter. 2000. ‘Sociology and the Normative Power: The Heritage of Torgny T. Segerstedt.’ Acta Sociologica, 43(4): 53–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sverigedemokraterna. 2011. ‘En ansvarsfull invandringspolitik.’ Retrieved August 2011 (http://sverigedemokraterna.se/vara-asikter/vara-viktigaste-fragor/ansvar sfull-invandringspolitik/).Google Scholar
  43. Samuelsson, Wiwi. 1999. Det finns gränser. Stockholm: Utbildningsradion.Google Scholar
  44. Similä, Artturi. 1966. ‘Finnarna som minoritet i Sverige.’ Dagens Nyheter 23 April.Google Scholar
  45. Spång, Mikael. 2009. ‘Debating Labor Immigration and Immigration Policy in Sweden, 1960–2008.’.pp. 74–106 in Debating Migration: Political Discourse on Labor Immigration in Historical Perspective, edited by S. Mayer and M. Spång. Innsbruck: Studienverlag.Google Scholar
  46. Svenska Dagbladet. 1966. ‘Annorlunda svenskar’. Newspaper editorial. 9 July.Google Scholar
  47. The Swedish Constitution of 1974. Chapter 1, Article 2 of the Instrument of Government.Google Scholar
  48. Swedner, Harald. 1966. ‘Sociologiska synpunkter på minoritetsproblemen i Sverige’. pp. 84–106 in Svenska minoriteter, edited by D. Schwarz. Stockholm: Aluds.Google Scholar
  49. Swedner, Harald. 1967a. ‘Recension av Främling i Sverige’. Sociologisk forskning. 3: 191–192.Google Scholar
  50. Swedner, Harald. 1967b. ‘Om assimileringsprofilerna’. Sociologisk forskning, 4: 208–215.Google Scholar
  51. Swedner, Harald. 1968. ‘Om assimilering och funktionell integrering.’ pp. 32–58 in De nya svenskarna: en debattskrift om den svenska invandrarfrågan, edited by A. Redemo. Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren.Google Scholar
  52. Riksdagens protokoll 1975: 80, 14 May 1975.Google Scholar
  53. Taikon, Katarin. 1963. Zigenerska. Stockholm: Wahlström and Widstrand.Google Scholar
  54. Tingsten, Herbert. 1965. Från idéer till idyll: den lyckliga demokratien, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  55. Trankell, Arne. 1971. ‘Förord.’ pp. 3–5 in Gustafsson, Inga. Studier in en minoritetsgrupps strävan att bevara sin kulturella autonomi. Stockholm: Samhällsvetarförlaget.Google Scholar
  56. Westin, Charles. 1975. ‘Familjepedagogik för zigenska flyktingfamiljer.’ pp. 189–259 in Invandrarproblem: fern uppsatser om invandrar- och minoritetsproblem från IMFO-gruppen vid Stockholms universitet. Stockholm: Pan.Google Scholar
  57. Wisselgren, Per. 2008. ‘Vetenskap och/eller politik?: om gränsteorier och utredningsväsendets vetenskapshistoria.’ pp. 109–119 in Mångsysslare och gränsöverskridare: 13 uppsatser i idéhistoria, edited by B. Sundin and M. Göransdotter. Umeå: Umeå universitet.Google Scholar
  58. Wächter, Michael. 1966a. ‘Ett öppet samhälle’. Dagens Nyheter 3 April.Google Scholar
  59. Wächter, Michael. 1966b. ‘Invandrare och minoriteter.’, Ord och Bild, 3 pp. 205–210.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mats Wickström 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mats Wickström

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations