Processes of Mobilization

  • Alpaslan Özerdem
  • Sukanya Podder


Recent scholarship on youth participation in conflict can be categorized into five broad types. First, are studies that focus on the different processes of youth recruitment into conflict and the role of international humanitarian law, ethics, globalization and the media in defining this practice (Rosen, 2007; Hoffman, 2010; Lee-Koo, 2011). The second set of studies focus on the different processes through which youth are recruitment with a focus on displacement, coercion and socio-cultural explanations (Shepler, 2004; Hart, 2008a; 2008b; Beber and Blattman, 2013; Boyden and Berry, 2005; Peters, Richards and Vlassenroot, 2003). This literature does not distinguish between mobilization and recruitment as distinct sets of processes involving different types of actors, motivations and compulsions except a few which look more specifically at rebel group recruitment (Gates and Andvig, 2006). Third, there are a number of recent studies that focus on the ‘agents of mobilization’ and thereby emphasize the role of structural variables including patterns of land ownership, employment and labour relations in explaining youth participation in conflict tend to underplay the role of youth’s agency in conflict participation (Richards, 2005; Munive, 2010; Peters and Richards, 2011; Themnér, 2013; Carter, Maher and Neumann, 2014). Fourth, there are studies that focus more specifically on the agency of youth, with an emphasis on the different factors that encourage their voluntary enlistment in various armed groups (Shepler, 2004; Utas, 2005; Denov and Maclure, 2006; Denov, 2010; 2011).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdullah, I. (1998) ‘Bush Path to Destruction: The Origin and Character of the Revolutionary United Front/Sierra Leone’, Journal of Modern African Studies 36 (June), 203–235.Google Scholar
  2. Abdullah, I. and P. Muana (1998) ‘The Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone: A Revolt of the Lumpen Proletariat’, in C. Clapham (ed.) African Guerrillas (Oxford: James Currey), 45–76.Google Scholar
  3. Achvarina, V. and S. F. Reich (2006) ‘No Place to Hide: Refugees, Displaced Persons, and the Recruitment of Child Soldiers’, International Security 31 (1), 127–164.Google Scholar
  4. Alterman, J. B. (2012) ‘Seeing through the Fog: Libya and Transition’, SAIS Review 32 (1), 147–156.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, E. (1980) ‘Some Observations of Black Youth Unemployment’, in B. Anderson and I. Sawhill (eds) Youth Employment: Issues and Policy (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall).Google Scholar
  6. Apfel, R. J. and B. Simon (eds) (1996) Minefields in their Hearts: The Mental Health of Children in War and Communal Violence (New Have, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  7. Argenti, N. (2002) ‘Youth in Africa: A Major Resource for Change’, in A. De Waal and N. Argenti (eds) Young Africa: Realizing the Rights of Children and Youth (Lawrenceville, NJ: Africa World Press).Google Scholar
  8. Arjona, A. and S. Kalyvas (2006) ‘Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Recruitment: An Analysis of Survey Data from Colombia’, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 31 August, 3 September (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania).Google Scholar
  9. Azam, J. (2006) ‘On Thugs and Heroes: Why Warlords Victimize their Own Civilians’, Economics and Governance 7 (January), 53–73.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1984) ‘Representing Personal Determinants in Causal Structures’, Psychological Review 91, 508–511.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1989) ‘Human Agency in Social-Cognitive Theory’, American Psychologist 44 (9), 1175–1184.Google Scholar
  12. Bangura, Y. (1997), ‘Understanding the Political and Cultural Dynamics of the Sierra Leone War: A Critique of Paul Richards’ Fighting for the Rain Forest’, Africa Development 22 (3/4), 117–148.Google Scholar
  13. Battle, S. L. (2010) ‘Lessons in Legitimacy: The LTTE Endgame of 2007–2009’. Masters dissertation (Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School Defense Analysis Department).Google Scholar
  14. Beber, B. and C. Blattman (2013) ‘The Logic of Child Soldiering and Coercion’, International Organization 67 (1), 65–104.Google Scholar
  15. Becker, J. (2009) ‘Child Recruitment in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Nepal’, in S. Gates and S. Reich (eds) Child Soldiers in the Age of Fractured States (Pittsburg, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press), 108–120.Google Scholar
  16. Beehner, L. (2007) ‘The Effects of “Youth Bulge” on Civil Conflicts’, Council on Foreign Relations, available online at accessed 19 January 2014.Google Scholar
  17. Biziouras, N. (2012) ‘The Formation, Institutionalization and Consolidation of the LTTE: Religious Practices, Intra-Tamil Divisions and a Violent Nationalist Ideology’, Politics, Religion & Ideology 13 (4), 547–559.Google Scholar
  18. Bloom, M. (2005) Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror (NY: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  19. Bøas, M. and K. C. Dunn (2007) African Guerrillas: Raging against the Machine (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).Google Scholar
  20. Boyden, J. and J. de Berry (eds) (2005) Children and Youth on the Front Line: Ethnography, Armed Conflict and Displacement (New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books).Google Scholar
  21. Brass, P. R. (ed.) (1996) Riots and Pogroms (New York: New York University Press).Google Scholar
  22. Brockett, C. D. (2005) Political Movements and Violence in Central America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  23. Call, C. (2008) ‘The Fallacy of the “Failed State”’, Third World Quarterly 29 (8), 1491–1507.Google Scholar
  24. Carter, A., S. Maher, and P. R. Neumann (2014) ‘#Greenbirds: Measuring Importance and Influence in Syria’s Foreign Fighter Networks’, 16, at accessed 19 January 2015.Google Scholar
  25. Cederman, L. E., A. Wimmer, and B. Min (2010) ‘Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis’, World Politics 62 (1), 87–119.Google Scholar
  26. Collier, P. and A. Hoeffler (2002) ‘On the Incidence of Civil War in Africa’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (1), 13–28.Google Scholar
  27. Collier, P. and A. Hoeffler (2004) ‘Greed and Grievance in Civil War’, Oxford Economic Papers 56 (4), 563–595.Google Scholar
  28. Coulter, C. (2008) ‘Female Fighters in the Sierra Leone War: Challenging the Assumptions?’ Feminist Review 88 (1), 54–73.Google Scholar
  29. Coulter, C. (2009) Bush Wives and Girl Soldiers: Women’s Lives through War and Peace in Sierra Leone (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  30. Coulter, C., M. Persson, and M. Utas (2008) Young Female Fighters in African Wars (Stockholm, Sweden: NordiskaAfrikainstitutet).Google Scholar
  31. Davies, J. (1962) ‘Toward a Theory of Revolution’, American Sociological Review 6 (February), 5–19.Google Scholar
  32. De Waal, A. and N. Argenti (eds) (2002) Young Africa: Realizing the Rights of Children and Youth (New Jersey: Africa World Press).Google Scholar
  33. Denov, M. S. (2010) Child Soldiers: Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  34. Denov, M. S. (2011) ‘Social Navigation and Power in Post-conflict Sierra Leone: Reflections from a Former Child Soldier Turned Bike Rider’, in A. Özerdem and S. Podder (eds) Child Soldiers: From Recruitment to Reintegration (New York/ London: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  35. Denov, M. S. and R. Maclure (2006) ‘“I Didn’t Want to Die So I Joined Them”: Structuration and the Process of Becoming Boy Soldiers in Sierra Leone’, Terrorism and Political Violence 18 (1), 119–135.Google Scholar
  36. Dersso, S. A. (2010) ‘Somalia Dilemmas: Changing Security Dynamics, but Limited Policy Choices’, Institute for Security Studies Papers (218), accessed 18 February 2014.Google Scholar
  37. Duffy M. T. (2002) ‘Indivisible Territory, Geographic Concentration, and Ethnic War’, Security Studies 12 (2), 82–119.Google Scholar
  38. Eck, K. (2010) Raising Rebels: Participation and Recruitment in Civil War. Dissertation (Sweden: Uppsala University).Google Scholar
  39. El Tiempo (2012) ‘Hay 18.000 Menores En Grupos Armados y Bandas’, 11 August.Google Scholar
  40. Epstein, J. M. (2002) ‘Modeling Civil Violence: An Agent-based Computational Approach’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 (Supplement 3), 7243–7250.Google Scholar
  41. Eyber, C. and A. Ager (2004) ‘Researching Young People’s Experiences of War: Participatory Methods and the Trauma Discourse in Angola’, in J. Boyden and J. Berry (eds) Children and Youth on the Front Line: Ethnography, Armed Conflict and Displacement, 14, 189–208.Google Scholar
  42. Fearon, J. and D. Laitin (2003) ‘Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War’, American Political Science Review 1 (February), 75–90.Google Scholar
  43. Finkel, S. E., E. N. Muller, and K. D. Opp (1989) ‘Personal Influence, Collective Rationality, and Mass Political Action’, The American Political Science Review 83 (3) (September), 885–903.Google Scholar
  44. Fuller, F. and F. R. Pitts (1990) ‘Youth Cohorts and Political Unrest in South Korea’, Political Geography Quarterly 9 (1), 9–22.Google Scholar
  45. Gates, S. (2002) ‘Recruitment and Allegiance: The Micro-foundations of Rebellion’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 26 (February): 111–130.Google Scholar
  46. Gates, S. (2011) ‘Why Do Children Fight? Motivations and the Mode of Recruitment’, in A. Özerdem and S. Podder (eds) Child Soldiers: From Recruitment to Reintegration (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), 29–49.Google Scholar
  47. Gates, S. and J. C. Andvig (2006) ‘Recruiting Children for Armed Conflict’, Paper Presented at the Dutch Flemish Association for Economy and Peace, 22 June, accessed 1 February 2014.Google Scholar
  48. Gates, S. and R. Nordås (2010) ‘Recruitment and Retention in Rebel Groups’. Unpublished manuscript forwarded by authors.Google Scholar
  49. Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Introduction to the Theory of Structuration (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  50. Goldstone, J. A. (1991) Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  51. Goodhand, J., D. Hulme, and N. Lewer (2000) ‘Social Capital and the Political Economy of Violence: A Case Study of Sri Lanka’, Disasters, 24 (4), 390–406.Google Scholar
  52. Goodwin, J. and T. Skocpol (1989) ‘Explaining Revolutions in the Contemporary Third World’, Politics and Society17 (December), 489–509.Google Scholar
  53. Guichaoua, Y. (ed.) (2011) Understanding Collective Political Violence (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  54. Gurr, T. R. (1970) Why Men Rebel (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  55. Gurr, T. R. (2000) ‘Ethnic Warfare on the Wane’, Foreign Affairs (May/June), 52–64.Google Scholar
  56. Hart, J. (ed.) (2008a) Years of Con flict: Adolescence, Political Violence and Displacement, Vol. 25 (New York: Berghahn Books).Google Scholar
  57. Hart, J. (2008b) ‘Displaced Children’s Participation in Political Violence: Towards Greater Understanding of Mobilisation: Analysis’, Conflict, Security and Development 8 (3), 277–293.Google Scholar
  58. Heath, J. T., D. Mason, W. T. Smith, and J. P. Weingarten (2000) ‘The Calculus of Fear: Revolution, Repression, and the Rational Peasant’, Social Science Quarterly 81 (2), 622–633.Google Scholar
  59. Hegghammer, T. (2013) ‘The Recruiter’s Dilemma: Signalling and Rebel Recruitment Tactics’, Journal of Peace Research 50 (1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  60. Heinsohn, G. (2003) Soehne und Weltmacht: Terror im Aufsteig und Fall der Natione (Sons and World Power: Terror in the Rise and Fall of Nations) (Zurich: Orell & Suessli).Google Scholar
  61. Heinsohn, G. (2007) ‘Islamism and War: The Demographics of Rage’, Open Democracy, accessed 19 January 2015.
  62. Henriksen, R. and A. Vinci (2007) ‘Combat Motivation in Non-state Armed Groups’, Terrorism and Political Violence 20 (1), 87–109.Google Scholar
  63. Hilker, L. M. and E. M. Fraser (2009) ‘Youth Exclusion, Violence, Conflict and Fragile States’, Report Prepared for DFID (London: Social Development Direct). (available online at, accessed 10 January, 2015).Google Scholar
  64. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959) PrimitiveRebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movements in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Manchester: Manchester University Press).Google Scholar
  65. Hoffman, D. (2011) The War Machines: Young Men and Violence in Sierra Leone and Liberia (Durham, NC: Duke University Press).Google Scholar
  66. Homer-Dixon, T. F. (1999) Environment, Scarcity, and Conflict (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  67. Horowitz, D. (1985) Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  68. Hultman, L. (2009) ‘The Power to Hurt in Civil War: The Strategic Aim of RENAMO Violence’, Journal of Southern African Studies 35 (4), 821–834.Google Scholar
  69. Humphreys, M. (2005) ‘Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution Uncovering the Mechanisms’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (4), 508–537.Google Scholar
  70. Humphreys, M. and J. M. Weinstein (2006) ‘Handling and Manhandling Civilians in Civil War’, APSR 100 (3), 429–477.Google Scholar
  71. Humphreys, M. and J. M. Weinstein (2008) ‘Who Fights? The Determinants of Participation in Civil War’, American Journal of Political Science 52 (2), 436–455.Google Scholar
  72. Huntington, S. P. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New Delhi: Penguin Books).Google Scholar
  73. Johnson, P. and D. Martin (eds) (1986) Destructive Engagement: Southern Africa at War (Harare: Unknown Publisher).Google Scholar
  74. Jourdan, L. (2011) ‘Mayi-Mayi: Young Rebels in Kivu, DRC’, Africa Development 36 (3–4), 89–112.Google Scholar
  75. Kalyvas, S. and M. Kocher (2007) ‘How “Free” Is Free Riding in Civil Wars? Violence, Insurgency and the Collective Action Problem’, World Politics 59 (January), 177–216.Google Scholar
  76. Kaplan, R. D. (1996) The Ends of the Earth: A Journey at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Random House).Google Scholar
  77. Kaplan, R. D. (2001) The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post-Cold War (New York: Vintage).Google Scholar
  78. Klandermans, B. and D. Oegema (1987) ‘Potentials, Networks, Motivations, and Barriers: Steps towards Participation in Social Movements’, American Sociological Review 52 (4) (August), 519–531.Google Scholar
  79. Klosko, G., E. N. Muller, and K. D. Opp (1987) ‘Rebellious Collective Action Revisited’, American Political Science Review 81 (2), 557–564.Google Scholar
  80. Kraja, G. (2011) ‘Recruitment Practices of Europe’s Last Guerrilla’. Dissertation (New Haven, CT: Yale University).Google Scholar
  81. Krause, K. and J. Milliken (2009) ‘Introduction: The Challenge of Non-state Armed Groups’, Contemporary Security Policy 30 (2), 202–220.Google Scholar
  82. Le Billon, P. (2004) ‘The Geopolitical Economy of “Resource Wars”’, Geopolitics 9 (1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  83. Lee-Koo, K. (2011) ‘Horror and Hope: (Re) Presenting Militarised Children in Global North-South Relations’, Third World Quarterly 32 (4), 725–742.Google Scholar
  84. Lichbach, M. (1990) ‘Will Rational People Rebel against Inequality? Samson’s Choice’, American Journal of Political Science 34 (4), 1049–1076.Google Scholar
  85. Lichbach, M. (1995) The Rebel’s Dilemma (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).Google Scholar
  86. Lichbach, M. (1998) ‘Contending Theories of Contentious Politics and the Structure-Action Problem of Social Order’, Annual Review of Political Science 1, 401–424.Google Scholar
  87. MacFarquhar, N. (2008) ‘Angry Youths Become a Force in Darfur’, New York Times 21 December, A6.Google Scholar
  88. Madsen, E. L., B. Daumerie and K. Hardee (2010) ‘The Effects of Age Structure on Development’ (Policy and Issue Brief), accessed 17 January 2014.Google Scholar
  89. Mamdani, M. (2001) When Victims Become Killers (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), 215.Google Scholar
  90. Mampilly, Z. C. (2011) Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian lLfe during War (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  91. Marchal, R. (2011) The Rise of a Jihadi Movement in a Country at War — Harakat Al-Shabaab Al Mujahideen in Somalia (Paris: Sciences Po).Google Scholar
  92. Mason, D. T. (1996) ‘Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, and the Rational Peasant’, Public Choice 86, 63–83.Google Scholar
  93. McAdam, D. and R. Paulsen (1993) ‘Specifying the Relationship between Social Ties and Activism’, American Journal of Sociology 99 (3) (November), 640–667.Google Scholar
  94. McAdam, D., S. Tarrow, and C. Tilly (2003) ‘Dynamics of Contention’, Social Movement Studies 2 (1), 99–102.Google Scholar
  95. McKay, S. and D. Mazurana (2002) Girls in Militaries, Paramilitaries, and Armed Opposition Groups: A Preliminary Review for 1990–2000, accessed 18 January 2014.Google Scholar
  96. Metelits, C. (2009) Inside Insurgency: Violence, Civilians, and Revolutionary Group Behaviour (NY: NYU Press).Google Scholar
  97. Moore, B. (1966) Social Origins of Democracy and Dictatorship (Boston: Beacon Press).Google Scholar
  98. Moore, B. (1995) Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (with a new foreword by E. Friedman and James C. Scott (ed.)) (Boston: Beacon Press).Google Scholar
  99. Muana, P. (1997) ‘The Kamajoi Militia: Violence, Internal Displacement and the Politics of Counter-Insurgency’, Africa Development XXII (3–4), 46–77.Google Scholar
  100. Munive, J. (2010) ‘The Army of “Unemployed” Young People’, Young 18 (3), 321–338.Google Scholar
  101. O’Brien, T. and S. Podder (2012) ‘Introduction to the Special Issue’, Politics, Religion & Ideology 13 (4), 429–437.Google Scholar
  102. Olson, M. (1965) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  103. Oluwaniyi, O. (2010) ‘Oil and Youth Militancy in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region’, Journal of Asian and African Studies 45 (3), 309–325.Google Scholar
  104. Onesto, L. (2005). Dispatches from the People’s War in Nepal (London: Pluto Press).Google Scholar
  105. Oyefusi, A. (2008) ‘Oil and the Probability of Rebel Participation among Youths in the Niger Delta of Nigeria’, Journal of Peace Research 45 (4), 539–555.Google Scholar
  106. Parsons, I. (2004) ‘Youth, Conflict and Identity: Political Mobilisation and Subjection in Angola’, in A. Macintyre (ed.) Invisible Stakeholders: Children and War in Africa (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies), 45–66.Google Scholar
  107. Passy, F. (2003) ‘Social Networks Matter. But How’, in M. Diani and D. McAdam (eds) Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 21–48.Google Scholar
  108. Peters, K. (2011) War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  109. Peters, K. and P. Richards (2011) ‘Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone’, Journal of Agrarian Change11 (3), 377–395.Google Scholar
  110. Peters, K., P. Richards, and K. Vlassenroot (2003) What Happens to Youth During and After Wars?: A Preliminary Review of Literature on Africa and an Assessment of the Debate, 55. RAWOO Working Paper.Google Scholar
  111. Petersen, R. D. (2002) Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  112. Podder, S. (2013) ‘Non-state Armed Groups and Stability: Reconsidering Legitimacy and Inclusion’, Contemporary Security Policy 34 (1), 16–39.Google Scholar
  113. Popkin, S. (1979) The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  114. Posen, B. R. (1993) ‘The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict’, Survival 35 (1), 27–47.Google Scholar
  115. Qazi, S. H. (2011) ‘Rebels of the Frontier: Origins, Organization, and Recruitment of the Pakistani Taliban’, Small Wars & Insurgencies 22 (4), 574–602.Google Scholar
  116. Regan, P. M. and D. Norton (2005). ‘Greed, Grievance, and Mobilization in Civil Wars’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (3), 319–336.Google Scholar
  117. Reno, W. (2007) ‘Patronage Politics and the Behavior of Armed Groups’, Civil Wars 9 (4), 324–342.Google Scholar
  118. Richards, P. (1996) Fighting for the Rainforest: War, Youth and Resources in Sierra Leone (Oxford: James Currey).Google Scholar
  119. Richards, P. (2005) ‘To Fight or to Farm? Agrarian Dimensions of the Mano River Conflicts (Liberia and Sierra Leone)’, African Affairs 104 (417), 571–590.Google Scholar
  120. Rosen, D. M. (2007) ‘Child Soldiers, International Humanitarian Law, and the Globalization of Childhood’, American Anthropologist 109 (2), 296–306.Google Scholar
  121. Roy, O. (2008) ‘Al Qaeda in the West as a Youth Movement: The Power of a Narrative’, CEPS Policy Briefs (1–12), 1–8.Google Scholar
  122. Rudd, P. and K. Evans (1998) ‘Structure and Agency in Youth Transitions: Student Experiences of Vocational Further Education’, Journal of Youth Studies 1 (1), 39–62.Google Scholar
  123. Salehyan, I. (2009) Rebels without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  124. Sambanis, N. (2001) ‘Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part 1)’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 45 (3), 259–282.Google Scholar
  125. Sambanis, N. and B. Milanovic (2004) ‘Explaining the Demand for Sovereignty’, accessed 2 February 2014.Google Scholar
  126. Sanín, F. G. (2004) ‘Criminal Rebels? A Discussion of Civil War and Criminality from the Colombian Experience’, Politics & Society 32 (2), 257–285.Google Scholar
  127. Scacco, A. (2010) ‘Who Riots? Explaining Individual Participation in Ethnic Violence’. Unpublished PhD (NY: Columbia University).Google Scholar
  128. Schumicky, L. (2011) ‘Growing Radicalization among Youth in Somalia’, in I. Tarrósy, L. Szabó, G. Hyden (eds) The African State in a Changing Global Context: Breakdowns and Transformations (Berlin and London: LIT Verlag), 69–83.Google Scholar
  129. Scott, J. (1976) The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  130. Shepler, S. (2004, August) ‘The Social and Cultural Context of Child Soldiering in Sierra Leone’. In PRIO-Sponsored Workshop on Techniques of Violence in Civil War, Oslo. Google Scholar
  131. Singh, R. (2012) ‘The Discourse and Practice of “Heroic Resistance” in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: The Case of Hamas’, Politics, Religion & Ideology 13 (4), 529–545.Google Scholar
  132. Skocpol, T. (1979) States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  133. Sommers, M. (2006) Youth and Conflict: A Brief Review of Available Literature, USAID. accessed 19 February 2014.Google Scholar
  134. Staniland, P. (2012) ‘States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders’, Perspectives on Politics 10 (2), 243–264.Google Scholar
  135. Stark, R. and W. S. Bainbridge (1985) The Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival, and Cult Formation (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  136. Tarrow, S. (1994) Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Mass Politics in the Modern State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  137. Tarrow, S. (2011) Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  138. Themnér, A. (2013) ‘A Leap of Faith: When and How Ex-combatants Resort to Violence’, Security Studies 22 (2), 295–329.Google Scholar
  139. Tilly, C. (1978) From Mobilization to Revolution (New York: McGraw-Hill).Google Scholar
  140. Tilly, C. (ed.) (2003) The Politics of Collective Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  141. Tilly, C. and S. Tarrow (2006) Contentious Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  142. Trawick, M. (1997) ‘Reasons for Violence: A Preliminary Ethnographic Account of the LTTE’, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 20 (1), 153–180.Google Scholar
  143. Ugarriza J. E. and M. J. Craig (2013) ‘The Relevance of Ideology to Contemporary Armed Conflicts: A Quantitative Analysis of Former Combatants in Colombia’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 57 (3), 445–477.Google Scholar
  144. Ukeje, M. (2001) ‘Youth Violence and Collapse of Public Order in the Niger Delta of Nigeria’, Africa Development 26 (2), 336–348.Google Scholar
  145. UNDP (2006) Human Development Report Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis (New York: United Nations).Google Scholar
  146. Ungar, M. and E. Teram (2000) ‘Drifting toward Mental Health High-Risk Adolescents and the Process of Empowerment’, Youth & Society 32 (2), 228–252.Google Scholar
  147. United Nations (2004) A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility: Report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change (NY: United Nations Publications).Google Scholar
  148. Urdal, H. (2004). ‘The Devil in the Demographics: The Effect of Youth Bulges on Domestic Armed Conflict, 1950–2000’, Social Development Papers: Conflict and Reconstruction Paper 14 (World Bank), accessed 11 January 2014.Google Scholar
  149. Urdal, H. (2006) ‘A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence’, International Studies Quarterly 50 (3), 607–629.Google Scholar
  150. Urdal, H. (2012) ‘Youth Bulges and Violence’, in J. A. Goldstone, E. P. Kaufmann, and M.T. Duffy (eds), Political Demography: How Population Changes Are Reshaping International Security and National Politics (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers), 117–432.Google Scholar
  151. Utas, M. (2005) ‘Victimcy, Girlfriending, Soldiering: Tactic Agency in a Young Woman’s Social Navigation of the Liberian War Zone’, Anthropological Quarterly 78 (2), 403–430.Google Scholar
  152. Vermeij, L. (2009) ‘Children of Rebellion: Socialization of Child Soldiers within the Lord’s Resistance Army’. Unpublished Masters Thesis (Oslo: University of Oslo).Google Scholar
  153. Vermeij, L. (2011) ‘Socialization and Reintegration Challenges: A Case Study of the Lord’s Resistance Army’, in A. Özerdem and S. Podder (eds) Child Soldiers: From Recruitment to Reintegration (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), 173–190.Google Scholar
  154. Vigh, H. (2006) Navigating Terrains of War: Youth and Soldiering in Guinea-Bissau (Oxford/New York: Berghahn Books).Google Scholar
  155. Walter, B. F. (2004) ‘Does Conflict Beget Conflict? Explaining Recurring Civil War’, Journal of Peace Research 41 (3), 371–388.Google Scholar
  156. Weinstein, J. M. (2005) ‘Resources and the Information Problem in Rebel Recruitment’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (4), 598–624.Google Scholar
  157. Weinstein, J. M. (2006) Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  158. Wennmann, A. (2007). ‘The Political Economy of Conflict Financing: A Comprehensive Approach beyond Natural Resources’, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 13 (3), 427–444.Google Scholar
  159. Wessells, M. (2006) Child Soldiers. From Violence to Protection (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  160. White, R. W. (1989) ‘From Peaceful Protest to Guerrilla War: Micromobilization of the Provisional Irish Republican Army’, American Journal of Sociology 94 (6) (May), 1277–1302.Google Scholar
  161. Whittaker, D. J. (2007) Terrorism: Understanding the Global Threat (London: Pearson Education).Google Scholar
  162. Willett, S. (2005) ‘New Barbarians at the Gate: Losing the Liberal Peace in Africa’, Review of African Political Economy 32 (106), 569–594.Google Scholar
  163. Wood, E. J. (2003) Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  164. Wyn, J. and R. White (2000) ‘Negotiating Social Change: The Paradox of Youth’, Youth & Society 32 (2), 165–183.Google Scholar
  165. Young, T. (1990) ‘The MNR/RENAMO: External and Internal Dynamics’, African Affairs 89 (357) (October), 491–509.Google Scholar
  166. Zakaria, F. (2001) ‘The Roots of Rage’, Newsweek 138 (16), 14–33.Google Scholar
  167. Zukerman-Daly, S. (2012) ‘Organizational Legacies of Violence: Conditions Favouring Insurgency Onset in Colombia, 1964–1984’, Journal of Peace Research 49 (3), 473–491.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Alpaslan Özerdem and Sukanya Podder 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alpaslan Özerdem
    • 1
  • Sukanya Podder
    • 2
  1. 1.Coventry UniversityUK
  2. 2.Centre for International Security and Resilience (CISR)Cranfield UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations