Locating Indonesia within the Emergent Regionalism of Southeast Asian Higher Education

  • Anthony R. Welch


The Indonesian higher education system presents a series of challenges to the growth of regionalism, underlining empirically that different states have differing capacities to engage with regional developments and agendas. While a key member of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and part of associated initiatives in regional higher education, such as the ASEAN Universities Network (AUN), the Association of Universities of Asia and the Pacific (AUAP), and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU), Indonesia’s relatively peripheral status in the global knowledge system, as also domestic issues of institutional governance, limited regulatory capacity, quality, corruption, and financial constraints, all serve to inhibit a more robust engagement in regional initiatives. In this sense, the analysis here largely concurs with that of Jayasuriya (2003), in which he argues that much of the existing analysis of South East Asian regionalism, including at times by ASEAN member countries themselves, has been both triumphalist and too focused on “formal regional ‘institutions’, … to the detriment of the understanding of the domestic political mainsprings of regional governance” (Jayasuriya 2003, 199). Moreover, these regional initiatives themselves lack the more established character of their European Union (EU) counterparts, thereby limiting the capacity of what has been called regulatory regionalism.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agenor, P. 2002. “Why Crises are Bad for the Poor.” Development Outreach 4 (1): 30–32.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, Philip. 1998. “Gigantic Peripheries: India and China in the World Knowledge System:” In Comparative Higher Education. Knowledge, the University and Development, ed. P. Altbach. Greenwich, CT: Ablex, pp. 133–146.Google Scholar
  3. Altbach, P. 1999a. “Private Higher Education: Themes and Variations in Comparative Perspective.” In Private Prometheus: Private Higher Education and Development in the 21st Century, ed. P. G. Altbach. London: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  4. Altbach, P. 2003. “Centres and Peripheries in the Academic Profession:The Special Challenges of Developing Countries.” In The Decline of the Guru. The Academic Profession in Developing and Middle Income Countries, ed. P. G. Altbach. New York: Palgrave, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  5. Amirrachman, A., S. Syafi’i, and A. Welch. 2008. “Decentralising Indonesian Education. The Promise and the Price.” World Studies in Education 9 (1): 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aphijanyatham, R. 2010. East Asian Internationalisation of Higher Education. A Key to Regional Integration. SEAMEO RIHED Programme Report No 25. December.Google Scholar
  7. ASEAN Universities Network (AUN). 2010. Updated lnformation on AUN Student Exchange Program 2010. Available at: www.aunsec.org/site/scholarship2011/20 11AUNStudentExchangeProgramme.pdf Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  8. Aspinall, E. 2004. “Indonesia: Transformation of Civil Society and Democratic Breakthrough.” In Civil Society and Political Change in Asia: Expanding and Contracting Democratic Space, ed. M. Alagappa. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 62–78.Google Scholar
  9. Bray, M., and Thomas, R. Murray, eds. 1998. Financing of Education in Indonesia. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  10. Brodjonegoro, S. n.d. Higher Education Reform in Indonesia. Available at: www.tfhe.net/resources/satryo_soemantrI_brodjonegoro2.htm. Accessed March 24, 2012.
  11. Buchori, M., and A. Malik. 2004. “Higher Education in Indonesia.” In Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges, ed. P. G. Altbach and T. Umakoshi. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 377 p.Google Scholar
  12. Chang, S-D. 2008. “The Distribution and Occupations of Overseas Chinese.” In The Chinese Diaspora in the Pacific, ed. A. Reid. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 33–51.Google Scholar
  13. Department of Higher Education (Malaysia). 2010. Public Higher Education lnstitutions. Available at: www.mohe.gov.myleducationmsia/index.php?article=dept. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  14. Dikti (D. o. H. E., Indonesia). 2007. Profil Perguruan Tinggi. Available at: www.dikti.org. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  15. Federation of Universities of the Islamic World (FUIW). n.d. Available at: www.fuiw.org/en/universites_membres.php. Accessed March 9, 2012.
  16. Hadijardaja, J. 1996. “Private Higher Education in Indonesia. Current Developments and Existing Problems.” In Private Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific. Final Report. Summary and Recommendations, ed. T: I. Wongsotorn and Y-B. Wang. Bangkok: UNESCO PROAP and SEAMEO RIHED.Google Scholar
  17. Institute of International Education. 2010. Atlas of Student Mobility: China. Available at: www.atlas.iienetwork.org/page/72248/. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  18. International Herald Tribune (IHT). 2010, September 29. “Asia’s Clouded Horizon”Google Scholar
  19. Jakarta Globe. 2010. “Historic Ruling Throws Out Law on Indonesian Universities.” Available at: www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/historic-rulin g-throws-out-law-on-indonesian-universities/366993. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  20. Jakarta Post. April 23, 2005. “Haluoleo Uncovers Admissions Scandal.” Jakarta Post. Retrieved from www.thejakartapost.com/news/2005/04/23/haluoleo-uncovers-admissions-scandal.htmlGoogle Scholar
  21. Jakarta Post. November 7, 2006. “Commercialization of the Country’s Higher Education”Google Scholar
  22. Jarvis, D., and A. Welch, eds. 2011. ASEAN Industries and the Challenge from China. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. Jayasuriya, K. 2003. “Introduction: Governing the Asia Pacific—beyond the ‘New Regionalism’,” Third World Quarterly 24 (2): 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jayasuriya, K. 2010. “Learning by the Market: Regulatory Regionalism, Bologna, and Accountability Communities.” Globalisation, Societies and Education 8 (1): 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, Sydney. 2003. “Jemaah Islamiah in South East Asia. Damaged but still Dangerous.” International Crisis Group Report No 63, August, 26, 2003.Google Scholar
  26. Kompas. 2002a. Anggaran Pendidikan Minimal 20 Persen dari APBN dan APBD (Education Budget Should be at least 20 Percent).Google Scholar
  27. Kompas. October 3, 2002b. Kian marak, Program Ekstensi di Universitas Indonesia, Honorarium Dosen Lebih Menjanjikan (More and More Extension Programs at University of Indonesia, Lecturers Secure Greater Financial Benefits).Google Scholar
  28. Kompas. August 15, 2002c. Tampa Kontrol, Peningkatan Anggaran Pendidikan Bisa Berbahaya (Without Controls, Increasing the Education Budget Could be Dangerous).Google Scholar
  29. Kompas. February 5, 2003. Soal RUU Sisdiknas: Setnig Harus Pahami Aspirasi Masyakarat (About the Education Law: State Secretariat Must be Sensitive to People’s Aspirations).Google Scholar
  30. Leigh, B. 1993. The Growth of the Education System in the Making of the State: A Case Study in ACEH, Indonesia. Sydney: The University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  31. Levy, D. 2002. “Unanticipated Development: Perspectives on Private Higher Education’s Emerging Roles.” Working Paper 1, University at Albany, State University of New York.Google Scholar
  32. Madjid, N. 2003. Speech, University of New South Wales. Sydney: Ministry of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  33. Ministry of Higher Education ( MOHE ). 2010a. Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Swasta (IPTS). Private Higher Education Institution (Private HEI), Malaysia: Ministry of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  34. Ministry of Higher Education [ MOHE ] 2010b. Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam (IPTA). Public Higher Education Institution (Public HEI) Malaysia: Ministry of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  35. Mok, K-H. 2010. “Emerging Regulatory Regionalism in University Governance: A Case Study of China and Taiwan.” Globalisation, Societies and Education 8 (1): 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murray Thomas, R. 1973. A Chronicle of Indonesian Higher Education. Singapore: Chopmen Enterprises.Google Scholar
  37. Nakamura, M., and Nishino, S. 1995. “Development of Islamic Higher Education in Indonesia.” In East Asian Higher Education: Traditions and Transformations, ed. A. H. Yee. 1st ed. Oxford, UK; New York: Published for the IAU Press by Pergamon.Google Scholar
  38. Nazim. 2006. Indonesia. Higher Education in South-EastAsia. Bangkok: SEAMEO RIHED, pp. 35–68.Google Scholar
  39. New York Times. 2008. “Suharto Dies at 86; Indonesian Dictator Brought Order and Bloodshed.” Available at: www.nytimes.com/2008/01/28/world /asia/28suharto.html?pagewanted=all. Accessed August 20, 2012.Google Scholar
  40. Newsweek. October 17, 2005. “Looks Can be Deceiving.” Newsweek, 24–25.Google Scholar
  41. Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC). 2010. Report of the Secretary General, COMSTECH. Available at: comstech.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=NBe_TJ0EuJc%3D … english. Accessed August 20, 2012.Google Scholar
  42. Purwadi, A. 2001. “Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education in Indonesia.” In Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education in East Asia, ed. IIEP. Paris: IIEP/UNESCO, pp. 61–75.Google Scholar
  43. Purwadi A., and S. Muljoatmodjo. 2000. “Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the third Millenium.” Journal of South East Asian Education 1 (1): 79–102.Google Scholar
  44. Reid, A. 2008. “Introduction.” In The Chinese Diaspora in the Pacific, ed. A. Reid. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. xv–xxviii.Google Scholar
  45. Robertson, S. 2010. “The EU, ‘Regulatory State Regionalism’ and New Modes of Higher Education Governance’.” Globalisation, Societies and Education 8(1): 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. SBS. 2011. “Islam’s Deadly Divide.” Available at: www.sbs.com.au/dateline/story/watch/id/601076/n/Islam-s-Deadly-Divide. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  47. South East Asian Ministers of Education (SEAMEO) Regional Institute for Higher Education (RIHED). 2010. SEAMEO RIHED and the M-I-T. Bangkok: SEAMEO RIHED. Available at: www.schwartzman.org.br/simon/jakarta.htm. Accessed August 20, 2012.Google Scholar
  48. “(Malaysia–Indonesia–Thailand) Student Mobility Pilot Program—Towards the Harmonisation of Higher Education.” Available at: www.rihed.seameo.org/files/harmonizMlT2.pdf Accessed March 24, 2012.
  49. Surakhmad, W. 2002. Desentralising Education: A Strategy for Building Sustainable Development. Paper presented at Conference on Autonomy in Education in the Indonesian Context, Australian National University, September 29.Google Scholar
  50. Suryadinata, L. 2003. “Patterns of Political Participation in Four ASEAN States: A Comparative Study.” In The Chinese Diaspora. Selected Essays (vol. 1), ed. L-C. Wang and G. Wang. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, pp. 64–83.Google Scholar
  51. Sutter, R. “Rising China, US Influence, and Southeast Asia—Background, Status, and Outlook.” In ASEAN Industries and the Challenge from China, ed. D. Jarvis and A. Welch. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  52. Sydney Morning Herald. January 10, 2003. “We are Paying a Heavy Price for Putting our Heads in the Sand.”Google Scholar
  53. Sydney Morning Herald. February 8, 2005. “Terrorism Blacklist: Indonesia Confident”Google Scholar
  54. Sydney Morning Herald. April 19, 2008. “We Fill Our Tanks, While They Can’t Fill Their Stomachs.”Google Scholar
  55. Sydney Morning Herald. April 22, 2011. “Counting the Cost of Too Much Democracy.”Google Scholar
  56. Tempo. June 1, 2003. “Jalur Khusus. Menembus Kampus Ternama.” pp. 54–55.Google Scholar
  57. The Australian. January 15, 2005. “Campus Life on Hold as Tsunami Takes its Toll.”Google Scholar
  58. The Australian. February 8, 2007. “A Strengthening Bond”Google Scholar
  59. The Australian. October 11, 2008. “Crusader Finds Fear is the Key.”Google Scholar
  60. The Australian. February 14, 2009. “Democracy Proves a Winner.”Google Scholar
  61. The Australian. March 5, 2011. “Region Nervous as China Boosts Defence Spending.”Google Scholar
  62. Transparency International. 2006. Corruption Perceptions Index., Berlin, Germany: Transparency International.Google Scholar
  63. UNDP. 2005. Human Development Report for South East Asia. New York: United Nations Development Program.Google Scholar
  64. University World News. April 27, 2008. “Indonesia: University Admissions Scandal.” Available at: www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080424153208204. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  65. University World News. June 28, 2009. “Islamic States: Network to Improve Quality Assurance.” Available at: www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=2009062612263584. Accessed March 9, 2012.Google Scholar
  66. Varghese, N. V. 2004a. Private Higher Education. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  67. Varghese, N. V. 2004b. “Private Higher Education in Africa.” Paper presented at the Policy Forum on Private Higher Education in Africa, Accra, Ghana, November 2–3, 2004.Google Scholar
  68. Wang, G. 2000. The Chinese Overseas. From Earthbound China to the Quest for Autonomy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Wang, G. 2005. “China and Southeast Asia: the Context of a New Beginning.” In Power Shift. China and Asia’s New Dynamics, ed. D. Shambaugh. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 187–204.Google Scholar
  70. Welch, A. 2008. “Imagining Islam: Funding and Governance of Islamic Higher Education in Indonesia and Malaysia.” Positioning Universities in the Globalized World:Changing Governance and Coping Strategies in Asia, University of Hong Kong, December.Google Scholar
  71. Welch, A. 2011a. Higher Education in Southeast Asia. Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Welch, A. 2011b. Financing Inclusive Higher Education in Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  73. Welch, A. 2012. “Seek Knowledge Throughout the World? Mobility in Islamic Higher Education.” Research in Comparative and International Education [Special Issue on Academic Mobility] 7 (1): 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Welch, A., and K.-H. Mok. 2003. “Conclusion: Deep Development or Deep Division?” In Globalisation and Educational Restructuring in the Asia Pacific Region, ed. K.-H. Mok and A. R. Welch. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 333–356.Google Scholar
  75. World Bank. 1996. Staff Appraisal Report. Indonesia. Higher Education Support Project: Development of Undergraduate Education. Jakarta: World Bank.Google Scholar
  76. World Bank. 2001. World Bank Tables 2000. Social Indicators of Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  77. Yang, R., and A. Welch. 2012. “A World Class University in China? The Case of Tsinghua.” Higher Education 63 (5): 645–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© John N. Hawkins, Ka Ho Mok, and Deane E. Neubauer 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony R. Welch

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations