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Abstract

In the march towards democratization, political systems like the United States, France, Sweden, Spain, India, Mexico, and Argentina have gone through one or more periods of severe clashes, civil wars, or revolutions, which result in the political empowerment or incorporation1 of religious and ethnic minorities. Political incorporation, when complete,2 is more than a party representing the oppressed groups achieving power temporarily, or completing its historical agenda as T. J. Pempel indicates.3 It means that large segments of the public are certain that they now have a stake in the system, that they can be part of the governing coalition. The concept of “political incorporation” is often used in American urban literature to denote the coming to power of African-American, Hispanic, or some white non-élites, but students of transitional societies also used it.4

Keywords

Gross Domestic Product European Monetary Union Democracy Party Positive Legacy Greek Economy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    R. De Leon, Left-Coast City: Progressive Politics in San Francisco, 1975–1991 (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1996);Google Scholar
  2. R. Browning, D. R. Marshall & D. Tabb, Protest Is Not Enough: The Struggle of Blacks and Hispanics for Equality in Urban Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. J. Pempel, ed., Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Lyrintzis, “PASOK in Power: Change to Disenchantment,” in Richard Clogg, ed., Greece, 1981–1989: The Populist Decade (New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1993) p. 120–130.Google Scholar
  5. See also L. Tsoukalis, “Beyond the Greek Paradox,” in G. T. Allison & K. Nicolaidis, eds., The Greek Paradox (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), p. 163–174.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), p. 162, 20–27.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    Throughout 1996, articles in the Economist treated this change as a welcome improvement, but not as a sign of new trends. See Keith Legg & John M. Roberts, Modern Greece: A Civilization on the Periphery (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997), p. 153, which expresses an otherwise pessimistic assessment of Greek politics, hoping that “future politics … may become more civil.”Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    Cultural explanations are back in vogue ever since Putnam’s work on Italy. See: Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993). Those who use them (Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations) ought to be careful not to let such studies deteriorate into national character simplifications and caricature. The cultural approach should be relegated to explanations of last resort. Structural, historical explanations are less likely to lead to value-laden declarations and racist statements.Google Scholar
  9. See also Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, OK: Oklahoma University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    This applies more to modern Western industrial nations. Today Iran is undergoing political incorporation of the lower classes through an extreme theocratic regime. England’s Cromwellian Revolution was also a similar type of religion-based incorporation. See also: J. Markoff, Waves of Democracy: Social Movements and Political Change (Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, 1996).Google Scholar
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    Francis Fukuyama, Trust (New York: Free Press, 1994).Google Scholar
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    P. Christofilopoulou, Decentralization in Post Dictatorial Greece (Ph.D. Dissertation: London School of Economics and Political Science, 1989).Google Scholar
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    D. Close, The Origins of the Greek Civil War (New York: Longman, 1995).Google Scholar
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    C. M. Woodhouse, The Struggle for Greece 1941–1949 (London, 1976).Google Scholar
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    J. A. Katris, Eyewitness in Greece: The Colonels Come to Power (St. Louis, MO: New Critics Press, 1971).Google Scholar
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    R. Clogg & G. Yannopoulos, eds., Greece under Military Rule (New York: Basic Books, 1972).Google Scholar
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    M. Spourdalakis, The Rise of the Greek Socialist Party (London: Routledge, 1988).Google Scholar
  20. 41.
    P. Christofilopulou, “Professionalism and Public Policy-Making in Greece: The Influence of Engineers in the Local Government Reforms,” in Public Administration, vol. 70 (spring 1992); C. Danopoulos, “Greek Bureaucracy and Public Administration,” S. B. Thomadakis, “The Greek Economy: Performance, Expectations, and Paradoxes,” p. 39–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Marco Rimanelli 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Platon N. Rigos

There are no affiliations available

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