Introduction: Protecting Human Security in a Post 9/11 World

  • Giorgio Shani


The limitations of the national security paradigm which has dominated both the theory and practice of international relations for most of the twentieth century have become glaringly obvious in the five years since the events of September 11, 2001 (hereafter 9/11). The response of the US-led coalition to the 9/11 attacks has been to attempt to physically eliminate the terrorist threat in both Afghanistan and, most recently, Iraq, by removing those regimes which allegedly provide them with sanctuary while increasing state powers of surveillance and detention of groups and individuals suspected of terrorist activity within their own state borders. This may be seen as consistent with conventional approaches to security studies, founded upon realist assumptions, which privilege the state as the most significant actor in international relations.


National Security Downside Risk Human Security Transnational Crime Security Study 
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© Giorgio Shani 2007

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  • Giorgio Shani

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