Advertisement

Constructing Gender in Public Arguments: The Female Voice as Emotional Voice

  • Lia Litosseliti

Abstract

This chapter explores the discursive construction of the female voice as emotional voice in public arguments (i.e. arguments produced in public). In particular, it uses examples of argument from the British media, together with examples from work in this area within different disciplines — in order to theorise some of the diverse ways in which assumptions about gender and emotion are enacted in discourse, and shape discourse. Further, the chapter deals with the links between the discursive construction of the female as emotional and women’s social positions in the public sphere. Given the political agenda of feminist linguistics, a robust analysis of such discursive construction, particularly as it is used in prevalent public arguments about social politics and ethics, is an important way of identifying and problematising these links.

Keywords

Gender Identity Public Sphere Public Argument Female Voice Critical Discourse Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boler, M. (1998) ‘Towards a politics of emotion: Bridging the chasm between theory and practice’. In APA Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy, vol. 98 (1) (Fall, 1998).Google Scholar
  2. Boler, M. (1999) Feeling Power: Emotions and Education (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  3. Brody, L. (1997) ‘Gender and emotion: Beyond stereotypes’. Journal of Social Issues, vol. 53 (2), pp. 369–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brody, L. R. and Hall, J. A. (1993) ‘Gender and emotion’. In M. Lewis and J. Haviland (eds) Handbook of Emotions, pp. 447–460 (New York: Guilford Press).Google Scholar
  5. Bunting, M. (2001) ‘Women and War’. The Guardian, 20 September 2001.Google Scholar
  6. Cameron, D. (ed.) (1998) The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader, 2nd edition (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  7. Coates, J. (ed.) (1998). Language and Gender: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  8. Cohn, C. (1987) ‘Sex and death in the rational world of defense intellectuals’. Signs, vol. 12 (4), pp. 687–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohn, C. (1993) ‘War, wimps and women’. In M. Cooke and A. Woolacott (eds) Gendering War Talk, pp. 227–246 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  10. Cohn, C. and Ruddick, S. (2004) ‘A feminist ethical perspective on weapons of mass destruction’. In Sohail Hashmi and Steven Lee (eds) Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Religious and Secular Perspectives, pp. 405–435 (New York: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edwards, D. (1999) ‘Emotion discourse’. Culture and Psychology, vol. 5 (3), pp. 271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fairclough, N. (1992) Discourse and Social Change (London: Polity Press).Google Scholar
  13. Fairclough, N. (1995) Media Discourse (London: Edward Arnold).Google Scholar
  14. Fischer, A. (1993) ‘Sex differences in emotionality: Fact or stereotype’. Feminism and Psychology, 3, pp. 303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fischer, A. (ed.) (2000) Gender and Emotion—Social Psychological Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  16. Galasinski, D. (2004) Men and the Language of Emotions (Basingstoke: Palgrave).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harre, R. (1986) The Social Construction of Emotions (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  18. Hearn, J. and Parkin, W. (1988) ‘Women, men, and leadership: A critical review of assumptions, practices, and change in the industrialized nations’. In N. Adler and D. Izraeli (eds) Women in Management Worldwide, pp. 17–40 (London: M.E. Sharpe).Google Scholar
  19. Hekman, S. (1994) ‘The feminist critique of rationality’. In The Polity Reader in Gender Studies, pp. 50–61 (Cambridge: Polity).Google Scholar
  20. Holland, P. (1996) ‘When a woman reads the news’. In P. Marris and S. Thornham (eds) Media Studies — A Reader, pp. 438–445 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).Google Scholar
  21. Holmes, J. (2000) ‘Women at work: Analysing women’s talk in New Zealand workplaces’. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics (ARAL), 22 (2), pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  22. Holmes, J. and Marra, M. (2004) ‘Relational practice in the workplace: Women’s talk or gendered discourse?’. Language in Society, 33, pp. 377–398.Google Scholar
  23. Holmes, J. and Schnurr, S. (2004) ‘Doing femininity at work: More than just relational practice’. Paper presented at IGALA3 conference 5–6 June 2004, Cornell University, NY.Google Scholar
  24. LaFrance, M. and Banaji, M. (1992) ‘Toward a reconsideration of the gender-emotion relationship’. In M. Clark (ed.) Review of Personality and Social Psychology (vol. 14) (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage).Google Scholar
  25. Litosseliti, L. (2002a) ‘The discursive construction of morality and gender: Investigating public and private arguments’. In S. Benor, M. Rose, D. Sharma, J. Sweetland and Q. Zhang (eds) Gendered Practices in Language, pp. 45–63 (Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University).Google Scholar
  26. Litosseliti, L. (2002b) ‘Head to Head: The construction of morality and gender identity in newspaper arguments’. In L. Litosseliti and J. Sunderland (eds) Discourse Analysis and Gender Identity. ‘Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture’, vol 2, pp. 129–148 (Amsterdam: Benjamins).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Litosseliti, L. and Sunderland, J. (2002) (eds) Discourse Analysis and Gender Identity, ‘Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture’, vol. 2 (Amsterdam: Benjamins).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Litosseliti, L. (2006) Gender and Language: Theory and Practice (London: Arnold).Google Scholar
  29. Livia, A. (1995) ‘ “I ought to throw a Buick at you”: Fictional representations of butch/femme speech’. In K. Hall and M. Bucholtz (eds) Gender Articulated, pp. 245–277 (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  30. Lutz, C. (1990) ‘Engendered emotion: Gender, power, and the rhetoric of emotional control in American discourse’. In C. Lutz and L. Abu-Lughod (eds) Language and the Politics of Emotion, pp. 69–91 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  31. Lutz, C. and Abu-Lughod, L. (1990) (eds) Language and the Politics of Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  32. Martin-Rojo, L. and Gomez Esteban, C. (2002) ‘Discourse at work: When women take on the role of manager’. In G. Weiss and R. Wodak (eds) Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity (London: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  33. McElhinny, B. (1998) ‘ “I don’t smile much anymore”: Affect, gender and the discourse of Pittsburgh police officers’. In J. Coates (ed.) Language and Gender: A Reader, pp. 309–327 (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  34. Mills, S. (2002) ‘Third Wave Feminist Linguistics and the Analysis of Sexism’: plenary talk at IGALA2 conference, 12–14 April 2002, Lancaster, UK. Also as pre-print in Discourse Analysis Online [http://www.shu.ac.uk/daol/].Google Scholar
  35. Oatley, K. and Jenkins, J. (1996) Understanding Emotions (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers).Google Scholar
  36. Ruddick, S. (1996) ‘Reason’s “femininity”’. In N. Goldberger, J. Tarule, B. Clinchy and M. Belenky (eds) Knowledge, Difference and Power, pp. 248–273 (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
  37. Shaw, S. (2002) Language and Gender in the House of Commons. PhD thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  38. Shields, S. A. (1987) ‘Women, men and the dilemma of emotion’. In P. Shaver and C. Hendrick (eds) Review of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 7 (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage).Google Scholar
  39. Shields, S. A. (1995) ‘The role of emotion beliefs and values in gender development’. In N. Eisenberg (ed.) Review of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 15, pp. 212–232 (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).Google Scholar
  40. Shields, S. A. (2000) ‘Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience’. In A. Fischer (ed.) Gender and Emotion—Social Psychological Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  41. Stubbe, M., Holmes, J., Vine, B. and Marra, M. (2000) ‘Forget Mars and Venus, let’s get back to earth: Challenging stereotypes in the workplace’. In J. Holmes (ed.) Gendered Speech in Social Context: Perspectives from Gown & Town, pp. 231–258 (Wellington: Victoria University Press).Google Scholar
  42. Talbot, M. (1998) Language and Gender (London: Polity).Google Scholar
  43. Tannen, D. (1990) You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (London: Virago).Google Scholar
  44. Tannen, D. (1998) The Argument Culture (New York: Virago).Google Scholar
  45. Walsh, C. (2001) Gender and Discourse: Language and Power in Politics, the Church and Organisations (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  46. Webster, W. (1990) Not a Man to Match Her (London: Women’s Press).Google Scholar
  47. White, G. (1990) ‘Moral discourse and the rhetoric of emotions’. In C. Lutz and L. Abu-Lughod (eds) Language and the Politics of Emotion, pp. 46–68 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  48. Wodak, R. (2002) ‘Interdisciplinarity, Gender Studies and CDA: Gender Main-streaming and the European Union’: plenary talk at IGALA2 conference, 12–14 April 2002, Lancaster, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Lia Litosseliti 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lia Litosseliti
    • 1
  1. 1.City UniversityLondonUK

Personalised recommendations