Conclusion: Prospects for ACBF and African Human Development/Security

  • George Kararach
  • Kobena T. Hanson
  • Timothy M. Shaw
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


The world of ‘development’ at the turn of the decade is very different from the turn of the millennium (Desai and Potter, 2008) let alone in the immediate cold war period when the HDR was first generated (UNDP, 2010). Then, optimism surrounding political and economic liberalisation prevailed, characterized by the ‘Washington Consensus’. Now, eroded by the continuing global crisis, optimism is in short supply. However, globalization has not been negative for all countries, communities and companies (Rudra, 2008). Rather, the traditional definition of geographical worlds of development — North, South, East and West (Hettne, 1995) — is being superseded by a tripartite differentiation into OECD, BRICs or ‘emerging economies’ or ‘developmental states,’ and fragile or failed states. As Jan Nederveen Pieterse (2011) suggests in the opening quotation, the new central axis may become South-East rather than North-South. In turn, the range, location and incidence of ‘global’ issues have evolved with special significance for the ‘global South’ (Reinert, 2007).


Civil Society International Criminal Court Global Governance Global Reporting Initiative Forest Stewardship Council 
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Copyright information

© George Kararach, Kobena T. Hanson, Timothy M. Shaw 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Kararach
  • Kobena T. Hanson
  • Timothy M. Shaw

There are no affiliations available

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