Trafficking in Human Beings

  • Anna Triandafyllidou
  • Thanos Maroukis
Part of the Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship Series book series (MDC)


This chapter discusses a phenomenon that is related to migrant smuggling even if conceptually distinct: that of the trafficking in human beings from Africa and Asia via Turkey to Greece. According to Içduygu and Toktas, human trafficking differs from smuggling in two respects. First, trafficking entails coercion and exploitation, whereas smuggling does not. Second, trafficking does not necessarily involve border crossing (Içduygu and Toktas, 2002, p. 29). However, what starts as smuggling can develop into trafficking. Indeed, the reasons behind the individual’s departure in both cases are fleeing from violence and insecurity and the prospect of finding work. In cases of labour-trafficking, the two even seem to merge, at least up to the point of the migrant’s arrival at the agreed destination. Being a woman and a migrant, however, adds a further layer of vulnerability and the journey might take a different path


Human Trafficking Destination Country African Woman Trafficking Victim Somali Woman 
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Copyright information

© Anna Triandafyllidou and Thanos Maroukis 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Triandafyllidou
    • 1
  • Thanos Maroukis
    • 2
  1. 1.European University InstituteFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP)AthensGreece

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