Trafficking in Human Beings
This chapter discusses a phenomenon that is related to migrant smuggling even if conceptually distinct: that of the trafficking in human beings from Africa and Asia via Turkey to Greece. According to Içduygu and Toktas, human trafficking differs from smuggling in two respects. First, trafficking entails coercion and exploitation, whereas smuggling does not. Second, trafficking does not necessarily involve border crossing (Içduygu and Toktas, 2002, p. 29). However, what starts as smuggling can develop into trafficking. Indeed, the reasons behind the individual’s departure in both cases are fleeing from violence and insecurity and the prospect of finding work. In cases of labour-trafficking, the two even seem to merge, at least up to the point of the migrant’s arrival at the agreed destination. Being a woman and a migrant, however, adds a further layer of vulnerability and the journey might take a different path
KeywordsHuman Trafficking Destination Country African Woman Trafficking Victim Somali Woman
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