Cultural and Historical Aspects of Media Transparency in Russia
Media transparency is a building block for professional media development based on trust between the media and the audience (Tsetsura and Kruckeberg, 2009). Journalists must be open and thus transparent with their audiences (Kovach, 2001). Honesty, independence of opinion, fair judgment and other traditional news values are the main factors that define journalistic principles and media credibility. If one or several of these principles are violated, the audience has a right to know what influenced journalistic decisions (Craig, 1999, 2006, 2008). The absence of any direct and indirect influence is central to the concept of media transparency. A lack of disclosure of influences and constraints placed on journalists, editors and the media in general in which articles or programmes appear is often referred to as non-transparency (Tsetsura and Grynko, 2009). Publishing news in exchange for a payment or a favour compromises a traditional function of mass media in a democratic society and undermines the media’s roles as gatekeepers (Boynton, 2007; Craig, 2007; Pasti, 2005).
KeywordsPublic Relation Public Relation News Coverage Medium Transparency Historical Aspect
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