Difference, ‘Multi’ and Equality

  • Tariq Modood
Part of the Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series book series ( CAL)


A politics of recognition of difference has to begin, sociologically, with the fact of negative ‘difference’: with alienness, inferiorization, stigmatization, stereotyping, exclusion, discrimination, racism, and so on; but also the senses of identity that groups so perceived have of themselves. The two together are the key datum for multiculturalism. The differences at issue are those perceived both by outsiders or group members — from the outside in and from the inside out — to constitute not just some form of distinctness but a form of alienness or inferiority that diminishes or makes difficult equal membership in the wider society or polity. There is a sense of groupness in play, a mode of being, but also subordination or marginality, a mode of oppression, and the two interact in creating an unequal ‘us–them’ relationship.2


Ethnic Minority Black Woman Public Space Social Housing Muslim Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amos, V. and Parmar, P. (1984) ‘Challenging Imperial Feminism’, Feminist Review, Vol. 17, 3–19.Google Scholar
  2. Bradley, H. (1996) Fractured Identities: Changing Patterns of Inequality, Cambridge, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bradley, S. and Taylor, J. (2004) ‘Ethnicity, Educational Attainment and the Transition from School’, The Manchester School, Vol. 72, No. 3, 313–46.Google Scholar
  4. Bullock, K. (2002) Rethinking Muslim Women and the Veil, London, International Institute for Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  5. Carby, H. (1982) ‘White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood’, in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in Seventies Britain, London, Hutchinson, pp. 212–35.Google Scholar
  6. Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain (CMEB) (2000) The Future of Multiethnic Britain, London, Profile Books.Google Scholar
  7. Connor, H., Tyers, C., Modood, T. and Hilage, J. (2004) ‘Why the Difference? A Closer Look at Minority Ethnic Students and Graduates’, Research Report, No. 552, Department for Education and Skills, July.Google Scholar
  8. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1903) The Souls of Black Folk, Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co.Google Scholar
  9. Durkheim, E. (1964) The Division of Labour in Society, trans. G. Simpson, New York, The Free Press.Google Scholar
  10. Fox, G. (1996) The Hispanic Nation: Culture, Politics and the Constructing of Identity, New Jersey, Secacusus.Google Scholar
  11. Fraser, N. and Honneth, A. (2003) Redistribution or Recognition, London, Verso.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gayle, V., Berridge, D. and Davies, R. (2002) ‘Young People’s Entry into Higher Education: Quantifying Influential Factors’, Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1–20.Google Scholar
  13. Goldthorpe, J. H. (2000) On Sociology: Numbers, Narratives, and the Integration of Research and Theory, Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Heath, A. and Cheung, S. Y. (2007) Unequal Chances: Ethnic Minorities in Western Labour Markets, Oxford, Oxford University Press for the British Academy.Google Scholar
  15. Kivisto, P. (2005) Incorporating Diversity: Rethinking Assimilation in a Multicultural Age, Boulder, CO, Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Klausen, J. (2005) The Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe, Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lamont, M. and Laurent, E. (2006) ‘France Shows Its True Colours’, Boston Globe, 3 June, <http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/06/03/franceshows_its_true_colors/>.
  18. Loury, G., Modood, T. and Teles, S. (eds) (2005) Ethnicity, Social Mobility and Public Policy in the US and UK, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. May, S. (ed.) (1999) Critical Multiculturalism, London, Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  20. Modood, T. (1988) ‘“Black”, Racial Equality and Asian Identity’, New Community, Vol. 14, No. 3, 397–404.Google Scholar
  21. Modood, T. (1994) ‘Political Blackness and British Asians’, Sociology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 859–76.Google Scholar
  22. Modood, T. (2004) ‘Capitals, Ethnic Identity and Educational Qualifications’, Cultural Trends, Special Issue on Cultural Capital and Social Exclusion, guest ed. T. Bennett and M. Savage, Vol. 13(2), No. 50.Google Scholar
  23. Modood, T. (2005a) Multicultural Politics: Racism, Ethnicity and Muslims in Britain, University of Minnesota Press and University of Edinburgh Press.Google Scholar
  24. Modood, T. (2005b) ‘Ethnicity and Political Mobilisation in Britain’, in G. Loury, T. Modood and S. Teles (eds), Ethnicity, Social Mobility and Public Policy in the US and UK, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 457–74.Google Scholar
  25. Modood, T. (2006) ‘The Liberal Dilemma: Integration or Vilification?’ OpenDemocracy website, 8 February, <http://www.opendemocracy.net/conflictterrorism/liberal_dilemma_3249.jsp>.
  26. Modood, T. (2007) Multiculturalism: A Civic Idea, Cambridge, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Modood, T., Berthoud, R., Lakey, J., Nazroo, J., Smith, P., Virdee, S. and Beishon, S. (1997) Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage — Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, London, Policy Studies Institute.Google Scholar
  28. Modood, T., Hansen, R., Bleich, E., O’Leary, B. and Carens, J. (2006) ‘The Danish Cartoon Affair: Free Speech, Racism, Islamism and Integration’, International Migration, Vol. 44, No. 5, 3–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Modood, T., Metcalf, H. and Virdee, S. (1998) ‘British Asian Entrepreneurs: Culture and Opportunity Structures’, in P. Taylor-Gooby (ed.), Choice and Public Policy, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Mohammad, H. (2004) ‘British Muslims a Success Story in 2004’, IslamOnline.net, 28 December, http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2004-12/28article06.shtml>.
  31. O’Donnell, M. (2007) ‘“We” Need Human Rights Not Nationalism “Lite”: Globalisation and British Solidarity’, Ethnicities, Vol. 7, No. 22, 248–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Omi, M. and H. Winant (1986) Racial Formation in the United States from the 1960s to the 1980s, London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Parekh, B. (2000) Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Parekh, B. (2004) ‘Redistribution or Recognition: A Misguided Debate’, in S. May, T. Modood and J. Squires (eds), Ethnicity, Nationalism and Minority Rights, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Parekh, B. (2005) ‘British Commitments’, Prospect, September, <http://prospectmagazine.co.uk/article_details.php?search_term=parekh&id=7003&issue=509&AuthKey=51e3e0b168fd1b98c34d1cb9f08e4fe9>.
  36. Phillips, A. (1999) Which Equalities Matter? Cambridge, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  37. Platt, L. (2005) ‘New Destinations? Assessing the Post-migration Social Mobility of Minority Ethnic Groups in England and Wales’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 39, No. 6, 697–721.Google Scholar
  38. Portes, A. and Zhou, M. (1993) ‘The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and its Variants among Post-1965 Immigrant Youth’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 530, 74–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rawls, J. (1971) Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Seglow, J. (2003) ‘Theorising “Recognition”‘, in B. Haddock and B. Sutch (eds), Multiculturalism, Identity and Rights, London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Song, M. (2001) ‘Comparing Minorities’ Ethnic Options’, Ethnicities, Vol. 1, No. 1, 57–82.Google Scholar
  42. Taylor, C. (1994) ‘The Politics of Recognition’, in A. Gutmann (ed.), Multiculturalism and ‘The Politics of Recognition’, Princeton, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Young, I. M. (1990) Justice and the Politics of Difference, Princeton, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michel Seymour 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tariq Modood

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations