About the middle of the second millennium BC, Greek colonies were established in Cyprus and later it formed part of the Persian, Roman and Byzantine empires. In 1193 the island became a Frankish kingdom, in 1489 a Venetian dependency, and in 1751 was conquered by the Turks. In 1914 the island was annexed by Great Britain and on 1 May 1925 it was given the status of a Crown Colony. In the 1930s the Greek Cypriots began to agitate for enosis (union with Greece). In 1955 they started a guerrilla movement (EOKA) against the British, with Archbishop Makarios, the head of the Greek Orthodox Church in Cyprus, as leader. In 1959 the Greek and Turkish Cypriots agreed on a constitution for an independent Cyprus and Makarios was elected President.
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