• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


During the Viking era Finland’s location on the trade route between Russia and Sweden brought prosperity and conflict, with attacks frequently made on Finnish trading posts by the Swedes and the Danes. In the 12th century economic and religious rivalry between Sweden and Russia was centred on Finland. By 1323 Russia was forced to recognize a boundary marking off Swedish control including all of western and southern Finland. Finland remained a duchy of Sweden until 1581 when it was made a grand duchy.

Suomen Tasavalta—Republiken Finland


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Further Reading

  1. Statistics Finland. Statistical Yearbook of Finland (from 1879).—Bulletin of Statistics (quarterly, from 1971).Google Scholar
  2. Constitution Act and Parliament Act of Finland. Helsinki, 1984Google Scholar
  3. Suomen valtiokalenteri—Finlands statskalender (State Calendar of Finland). Helsinki. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  4. Facts About Finland. Helsinki. Annual (Union Bank of Finland)Google Scholar
  5. Finland in Figures. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  6. Jakobson, M., Myth and Reality. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  7. Kirby, D. G., Finland in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. London, 1984Google Scholar
  8. Klinge, M., A Brief History of Finland. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  9. Petersson, O., The Government and Politics of the Nordic Countries. Stockholm, 1994Google Scholar
  10. Screen, J. E. O., Finland. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1997Google Scholar
  11. Singleton, F., The Economy of Finland in the Twentieth Century. Univ. of Bradford Press, 1987.—A Short History of Finland. 2nd edition. CUP, 1998Google Scholar
  12. Tillotson, H. M., Finland at Peace and War, 1918–1993. London, 1993Google Scholar
  13. Turner, Barry, (ed.) Scandinavia Profiled. Macmillan, London, 2000Google Scholar
  14. National statistical office: Statistics Finland, FIN-00022.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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