• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The first known inhabitants were a mix of Iberians, who spoke a non Indo-European language, and Celtic peoples, who were mainly in the north and west of the peninsula. From the 8th century BC the Phoenicians established trading colonies such as Gades (Cádiz), importing metalworking, music and literacy in the form of a semi-syllabic script. From around 215 BC the Iberian Peninsula was a battleground for the Romans and the Carthaginians. Fighting between the two powers continued until the Carthaginians were forced off the peninsula in 206 BC, after which Roman laws and customs were gradually adopted.

Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. Carr, Raymond (ed.) Spain: A History. OUP, 2000Google Scholar
  2. Conversi, D., The Basques, The Catalans and Spain. Hurst, London, 1997Google Scholar
  3. Heywood, P., The Government and Politics of Spain. London, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hooper, J., The New Spaniards. 2nd ed. [of The Spaniards] London, 1995Google Scholar
  5. Péréz-Díaz, V. M., The Return of Civil Society: the Emergence of Democratic Spain. Harvard Univ. Press, 1993Google Scholar
  6. Powell, C., Juan Carlos of Spain: Self Made Monarch. London and New York, 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Shields, Graham J., Spain. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA). 1994.Google Scholar
  8. Madrid. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1996Google Scholar
  9. National library: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid.Google Scholar
  10. National statistical office: Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), Paseo de la Castellana, 183, Madrid.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations