• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The first European in Canada was John Cabot in 1497. France claimed possession in 1534. The territories which now constitute Canada came under British power at various times by settlement, conquest or cession. For the most part such efforts were directed at gaining advantage over the indigenous Indian and Eskimo communities as well as displacing French colonial rule. Conflict also broke out, however, with the fledgling United States in the Anglo-American war of 1812–14. Since then. Canada and the USA have maintained the world’s longest undefended border. Nova Scotia was occupied in 1628 by settlement at Port Royal, was ceded back to France in 1632 and was finally ceded by France in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht. The Hudson’s Bay Company’s charter, conferring rights over all the territory draining into Hudson Bay, was granted in 1670. Canada, with all its dependencies, including New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, was formally ceded to Great Britain by France in 1763; Vancouver Island was acknowledged to be British by the Oregon Boundary Treaty of 1846; and British Columbia was established as a separate colony in 1858. As originally constituted, Canada was composed of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Quebec), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. They were united under the British North America Act, 1867.


Nova Scotia British Columbia Civil Aviation Executive Council Recent Election 
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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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