Sweden was organized as an independent unified state in the 10th century when the Swedes in the north of the country and the Goths in the south were united by Olof. Finland was acquired in the 13th century. In the 14th century Sweden was joined with Norway and Denmark in the Kalmar Union; however, under Gustavus Vasa Sweden regained her independence in 1523. Under Gustavus Adolphus (1611–32) Sweden became a first rank military power and, at the close of the Thirty Years War in 1648, was in possession of Pomerania and of extensive territories on the eastern shores of the Baltic. But war with Russia and her allies in the early 18th century ended disastrously for Sweden. By the treaty of Nystad (1721) Sweden lost her Baltic empire. In 1810 the French marshal, Bernadotte, was made crown prince. With the fall of Napoleon, Norway was taken from Denmark and attached to Sweden. Bernadotte became King in 1818. Sweden became a constitutional monarchy in 1809, in which year she also ceded Finland to Russia. Norway became independent in 1905. Sweden remained neutral during the two world wars of 1914–18 and 1939–45.
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