Magyar Kőztársaság (Hungarian Republic)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Hungarians call themselves ‘Magyars’; ‘Hungarian’ derives from the Turkic name (‘On ogur’, i.e. ten arrows) of the tribal federation on the Don which Árpád and his horde left in order to settle the sparsely inhabited middle Danubian basin in 896. As nomadism gave way to agriculture a feudal society developed led by nobility descended from the original conquerors. In 1301 Árpád’s line died out. Henceforth, with two exceptions, the throne was held by foreigners, sometimes holding other thrones simultaneously. In the 15th century the expansionist Ottoman empire reached the southern borders of Hungary. This first incursion was repelled but in 1526 the Turks annexed southern and central Hungary. The western rump came under Hapsburg rule which was extended to most of Hungary with the expulsion of the Turks in 1699. After a national rising in 1703, Emperor Charles IV restored the constitution and the Hungarian assembly recognized the Emperor’s claim to the Hungarian throne. Nationalist sentiments supported the radical democracy of Lájos Kossuth who set up a breakaway government. Ruthless repression followed but Austria’s military defeats in Italy (1859) and against Prussia (1866) forced the emperor to moderate his absolutism. Under the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 a Dual Monarchy was constituted; Hungary gained internal autonomy while foreign affairs and defence became joint Austro-Hungarian responsibilities.


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Further Reading

  1. Central Statistical Office. Statisztikai Évkönyv. Annual since 1871.—Magyar Statisztikai Zsebkönyv. Annual.—Statistical Yearbook.—Statistical Handbook of Hungary.—Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.Google Scholar
  2. Bozóki, A., et al. (eds.) Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. London, 1992Google Scholar
  3. Burawoy, M. and Lukács, J., The Radiant Past: Ideology and Reality in Hungary’s Road to Capitalism. Chicago Univ. Press, 1992Google Scholar
  4. Cox, T. and Furlong, A. (eds.) Hungary: the Politics of Transition. London, 1995Google Scholar
  5. Geró, A., Modern Hungarian Society in the Making: the Unfinished Experience; translated from Hungarian. Budapest, 1995Google Scholar
  6. Mitchell, K. D. (ed.) Political Pluralism in Hungary and Poland: Perspectives on the Reforms. New York, 1992Google Scholar
  7. Molnár, Miklós, A Concise History of Hungary CUP, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sárközi Mátyás, Budapest. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1997Google Scholar
  9. Szekely I. P., Hungary: an Economy in Transition. CUP, 1993Google Scholar
  10. Turner, Barry, (ed.) Central Europe Profiled. Macmillan, London, 2000Google Scholar
  11. National statistical office: Központi Statisztikai Hivatal/Central Statistical Office, Keleti Károly u. 5/7, H-1024 Budapest. Director: Tamás Mellár.Google Scholar
  12. National library: Széchenyi Library, Budapest.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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