Portugal has been an independent state since the 12th century apart from one period of Spanish rule (1580–1640). It became a kingdom in 1139 under Alfonso I. During the 15th century Portugal played a leading role in oceanic exploration, opening up new trade routes and establishing colonies. Portuguese influence extended to Guinea, Brazil, the Indies and the African coast. In 1807, during the Napoleonic wars, the Spaniards again invaded Portugal, but were driven out by the Duke of Wellington and Portuguese guerrillas during the peninsula war. Nationalistic republicans deposed King Manual II on 5 Oct. 1910. Another coup on 28 May 1926 replaced the unstable parliamentary republic with a military government which in turn was succeeded by civil dictatorship. In the 1960s Portugal faced economic stagnation at home and rebellion in her colonies. Goa was seized by India in 1961. War raged in the African colonies. There was a coup on 25 April 1974, establishing a junta of National Salvation. During 1974–75 most of the Portuguese overseas possessions, notably the African colonies, gained independence.
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