Jumhouriya al ‘Iraqia (Republic of Iraq)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Iraq, formerly Mesopotamia, was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1534 until it was captured by British forces in 1916. Under a League of Nations mandate, administered by Britain, Amir Faisal Ibn Hussain was crowned king in 1921. On 3 Oct. 1932 Britain’s mandate expired, and Iraq became an independent country. The ruling Hashemite dynasty was overthrown by a military coup on 14 July 1958. King Faisal II and Nuri al Said, the prime minister, were killed. A republic was established, controlled by a military-led Council of Sovereignty under Gen. Qassim. In 1963 Qassim was overthrown, and Gen. Abdul Salam Aref became president, with a partial return to a civilian government, but on 17 July 1968 a successful coup was mounted by the Ba’ath Party. Gen. Ahmed Al Bakr became president, prime minister, and chairman of a newly established ruling 9-member Revolutionary Command Council. In July 1979 Saddam Hussein, the vice-president, became president in a peaceful transfer of power.


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Further Reading

  1. Abdulrahman, A. J., Iraq. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1984Google Scholar
  2. Al-Khalil, S., Republic of Fear: the Politics of Modern Iraq. Univ. of California Press, 1989Google Scholar
  3. Baram, A., Cultural History and Ideology in the Formation of Ba’athist Iraq, 1968–89. London, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bleaney, H., Iraq. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1995Google Scholar
  5. Bulloch, J. and Morris, H., Saddam’s War: the Origins of the Kuwait Conflict and the International Response. London, 1991Google Scholar
  6. Chubin, S. and Tripp, C., Iran and Iraq at War. London, 1988Google Scholar
  7. Farouk-Sluglett, M., and Sluglett, P., Iraq since 1958: from Revolution to Dictatorship. London, 1991Google Scholar
  8. National statistical office: Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Planning, Baghdad.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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