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Hungary

Magyar Köztársaság (Hungarian Republic)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)

Abstract

The Hungarians call themselves ‘Magyars’; ‘Hungarian’ derives from the Turkic name (‘On ogur’, i.e. ten arrows) of the tribal federation on the Don which Árpád and his horde left in order to settle the sparsely inhabited middle Danubian basin in 896. As nomadism gave way to agriculture a feudal society developed led by nobility descended from the original conquerors. In 1301 Árpád’s line died out. Henceforth, with two exceptions, the throne was held by foreigners, sometimes holding other thrones simultaneously. In the 15th century the expansionist Ottoman empire reached the southern borders of Hungary. This first incursion was repelled but in 1526 the Turks annexed southern and central Hungary. The western rump came under Hapsburg rule which was extended to most of Hungary with the expulsion of the Turks in 1699. After a national rising in 1703, Emperor Charles IV restored the constitution and the Hungarian assembly recognized the Emperor’s claim to the Hungarian throne. Nationalist sentiments supported the radical democracy of Lajos Kossuth who set up a breakaway government. Ruthless repression followed but Austria’s military defeats in Italy (1859) and against Prussia (1866) forced the emperor to moderate his absolutism. Under the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 a Dual Monarchy was constituted; Hungary gained internal autonomy while foreign affairs and defence became joint Austro-Hungarian responsibilities.

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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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