Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Shona-speaking people lived in Zimbabwe hundreds of years before the Europeans arrived. It was a major commercial centre in the 14th and 15th centuries, although the ruins of Great Zimbabwe date back to the 8th century. It became increasingly secondary of the Kingdom of Mwanamutapa which arose on the north. By backing rival kings, Portuguese traders managed to destroy Mwanamutapa by 1700. The Shona inhabitants were unable to repel the invasion of Ndebele people under Mzilikazi in 1870; the Ndebele had a very powerful state. However, it was not strong enough to defeat European settlers who forcibly aquired Shona lands in 1890 and turned to Ndebele territory in 1893. Revolts by both peoples several years later were also defeated.


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Further Reading

  1. Central Statistical Office. Monthly Digest of Statistics. Google Scholar
  2. Caute, D., Under the Skin: the Death of White Rhodesia. London, 1983Google Scholar
  3. Cliffe, L. and Stoneman, C., Zimbabwe: Politics, Economy and Society. London, 1989Google Scholar
  4. Hatchard, J., Individual Freedoms and State Security in the African Context: the Case of Zimbabwe. Ohio Univ. Press, 1993Google Scholar
  5. Herbst, J., State Politics in Zimbabwe. Univ. of California, 1990Google Scholar
  6. Keppel-Jones, A., Rhodes and Rhodesia: the White Conquest of Zimbabwe, 1884–1902. Univ. of Natal Press, 1983Google Scholar
  7. Morris-Jones, W. H., (ed.) From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. London, 1980Google Scholar
  8. Potts, D., Zimbabwe [Bibliography]. 2nd ed. Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1993Google Scholar
  9. Schatzberg, M. G., The Political Economy of Zimbabwe. New York, 1984Google Scholar
  10. Skålnes, T., The Politics of Economic Reform in Zimbabwe: Continuity and Change in Development. London, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Stoneman, C., Zimbabwe’s Inheritance. London, 1982.—Zimbabwe: Politics, Economics and Society. London, 1988Google Scholar
  12. Verrier, A., The Road to Zimbabwe, 1890–1980. London, 1986Google Scholar
  13. Weiss, R. Zimbabwe and the New Elite. London, 1994Google Scholar
  14. Zimmerman, Z., Zimbabwe’s First Decade of Independence, 1980–1990: a Select and Annotated Bibliography. Johannesburg, 1991Google Scholar
  15. National statistical office: Central Statistical Office, POB 8063, Causeway, Harare.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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