• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Portugal has been an independent state since the 12th century apart from one period of Spanish rule (1580-1640). It became a kingdom in 1139 under Alfonso I. During the 15th century Portugal played a leading role in oceanic exploration, opening up new trade routes and establishing colonies. Portuguese influence spread in Guinea, Brazil, the Indies and on the African coast.

Repüblica Portuguesa


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Further Reading

  1. Instituto Nacional de Estatística. Anuádrio Estatistico de Portugal/Statistics Year-Book.— Estatísticas do Comércio Externa. 2 vols. Annual from 1967Google Scholar
  2. Birmingham, D., A Concise History of Portugal. CUP, 1993Google Scholar
  3. Corkill, D., The Portuguese Economy since 1974. Edinburgh UP, 1993Google Scholar
  4. Laidlar, J., Lisbon. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1997Google Scholar
  5. Maxwell, K., The Making of Portuguese Democracy. CUP, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Opello, W., Portugal: from Monarchy to Pluralist Democracy. Boulder (Colo.), 1991Google Scholar
  7. Saraiva, J. H., Portugal: A Companion History. Manchester, 1997Google Scholar
  8. Unwin, P. T. H., Portugal. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1987Google Scholar
  9. Wheeler, D. L., Historical Dictionary of Portugal. Metuchen (NJ), 1994Google Scholar
  10. National library: Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisbon.Google Scholar
  11. National statistical office: Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE), Avenida António José de Almeida, 1000 Lisbon.Google Scholar
  12. Website:

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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