The area began to be settled with the break up of the ancient Ghanaian and Mali empires. The Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristão visited the coast in 1446. Portugal remained the major influence in the area and in the 19th century established its rule on the coast; however, Portuguese rule was not extended into the interior until later and met African resistance well into the 20th century. Portuguese Guinea came under Cape Verde until 1879 when it became a separate colony. Portuguese Guinea became an Overseas Territory in 1951.
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- Forrest, J. A., Guinea-Bissau: Power, Conflict and Renewal in a West African Nation. Boulder (CO), 1992 Galli, R., Guinea-Bissau [Bibliography]. Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA).Google Scholar