The Mayan civilisation flourished in the area now known as Guatemala from 2500 BC until 1000 AD. Their descendants were subjugated by the conquistadors from 1523. From 1524 until 1821 Guatemala was part of a Spanish captaincy-general, comprising the whole of Central America. It became independent in 1821 and formed part of the Confederation of Central America from 1823 to 1839 when Rafael Carrera dissolved the Confederation. Since then it has had a turbulent political history with periods of presidential dictatorship, democracy and military dictatorship. Boundary disputes with El Salvador, Honduras and Belize (formerly British Honduras) have caused intermittent fighting.
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- Woodward, R. I., Guatemala. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA). 1992 National library: Bibliotecu Nacionál. a Avenida y a Calle. Zona 1. Guatemala City.Google Scholar