Elliniki Dimokratia (Hellenic Republic)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire between 1821-29, and by the Protocol of London of 3 Feb. 1830 was declared a kingdom under the protection of Great Britain, France and Russia. Many Greeks were left outside the new state and the cause of the union of all Greeks was championed by Otto I, a Bavarian who was enthroned on 18 Jan. 1833. After his overthrow on 23 Oct. 1862 a Danish prince was elected George I, King of the Hellenes in 1863. The 1844 constitution was replaced by one based on popular sovereignty in 1864. A programme of domestic renewal was launched after 1910, including important land reforms in 1917. In 1864 Great Britain had ceded the Ionian Islands; in 1881 Thessaly and part of Epirus had been taken. Greece’s area increased by 70%, the population growing from 2.8m. to 4.8 m. after the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) which recognized Greek sovereignty over Crete.


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Further Reading

  1. Close, M. J. and R., Greece. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA). 1980Google Scholar
  2. Clogg, R., Greece in the 1980s. London. 1983.—A Concise History of Greece. CUP. 1992Google Scholar
  3. Freris A. F., The Greek Economy in the Twentieth Century. London. 1986Google Scholar
  4. Jougnatos, G. A., Development of the Greek Economy. 1950–91 : an Historical. Empirical and Econometric Analysis. London. 1992Google Scholar
  5. Legg, K. R. and Roberts. J. M., Modern Greece: A Civilization on the Periphery. Oxford. 1997Google Scholar
  6. Petlifer, J., The Greeks: the Land and the People since the War. London. 1994Google Scholar
  7. Sarafis, M. and Eve, M. (eds.) Background to Contemporary Greece. London. 1990Google Scholar
  8. Tsakalotos, E., Alternative Economic Strategies: the Case of Greece. Aldershot, 1991Google Scholar
  9. Veremis, T., The Military in Greek Politics: From Independence to Democracy. C. Hurst and Co, London, 1997Google Scholar
  10. Woodhouse, C. M., Modem Greece: a Short History, rev. cd. London, 1991Google Scholar
  11. National statistical office: National Statistical Service: 14–16 Lycourgou St.. Athens.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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