Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire between 1821-29, and by the Protocol of London of 3 Feb. 1830 was declared a kingdom under the protection of Great Britain, France and Russia. Many Greeks were left outside the new state and the cause of the union of all Greeks was championed by Otto I, a Bavarian who was enthroned on 18 Jan. 1833. After his overthrow on 23 Oct. 1862 a Danish prince was elected George I, King of the Hellenes in 1863. The 1844 constitution was replaced by one based on popular sovereignty in 1864. A programme of domestic renewal was launched after 1910, including important land reforms in 1917. In 1864 Great Britain had ceded the Ionian Islands; in 1881 Thessaly and part of Epirus had been taken. Greece’s area increased by 70%, the population growing from 2.8m. to 4.8 m. after the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) which recognized Greek sovereignty over Crete.
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