• John Paxton
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


HISTORY. Since the Middle Ages Finland was a part of the realm of Sweden. In the 18th century parts of south-eastern Finland were conquered by Russia, and the rest of the country was ceded to Russia by the peace treaty of Hamina in 1809. Finland became an autonomous grand-duchy which retained its previous laws and institutions under its Grand Duke, the Emperor of Russia. After the Russian revolution Finland declared itself independent on 6 Dec. 1917. The Civil War began in Jan. 1918 between the ‘whites’ and ‘reds’, the latter being supported by Russian bolshevik troops. The defeat of the red guards in May 1918 consequently meant freeing the country from Russian troops. A peace treaty with Soviet Russia was signed in 1920.

Suomen Tasavalta—Republiken Finland


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Books of Reference

  1. Statistical Information: The Central Statistical Office (Tilastokeskus, Swedish: Statistikcentra-len; address: PO Box 504,SF-00101 Helsinki 10) was founded in 1865 to replace earlier official statistical services dating from 1749 (in united Sweden-Finland). Statistics on foreign trade, agriculture, forestry, navigation, health and social welfare are produced by other state authorities. Its publications include: Statistical Yearbook of Finland (from 1879) and Bulletin of Statistics (monthly, from 1924). A bibliography of all official statistics of Finland was published in Finnish, Swedish and English in Statistical publications 1856–1979. Helsinki, 1980. Constitution Act and Parliament Act of Finland. Helsinki, 1978Google Scholar
  2. Suomen valtiokalenteri (State Calendar of Finland; a Swedish version Finlands slatskalender is published separately). Helsinki. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  3. Facts About Finland. Helsinki. Annual (Union Bank of Finland)Google Scholar
  4. Finland: Creation and Construction. London, 1968Google Scholar
  5. Finland Facts and Figures. Helsinki, 1979Google Scholar
  6. Finland in Figures. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  7. Statistical Yearbook of Finland. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  8. Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  9. Finnish Foreign Policy: Studies in Foreign Politics. Political Science Association, Helsinki, 1963Google Scholar
  10. The Finnish Banking System. Helsinki, 1980Google Scholar
  11. Finnish Industry. Helsinki, 1981Google Scholar
  12. Finnish Local Government. Helsinki, 1981Google Scholar
  13. Health Services in Finland. Helsinki, 1980Google Scholar
  14. Let’s Have a Sauna. Helsinki, 1980Google Scholar
  15. Alanne, V. S., Finnish-English General Dictionary. Helsinki, 1980Google Scholar
  16. Hurme-Pesonen, English-Finnish General Dictionary. Helsinki, 1981Google Scholar
  17. Jutikkala, E., and Pirinen, K., A History of Finland. 3rd ed. New York, 1979Google Scholar
  18. Kekkonen, U., Neutrality: The Finnish Position. 2nd ed. London, 1973Google Scholar
  19. Kirby, D. G., Finland in the Twentieth Century. London, 1979Google Scholar
  20. Klinge, M., A Brief History of Finland. Helsinki, 1981Google Scholar
  21. Korhonen, K., Urho Kekkonen: A Statesman for Peace. Helsinki, 1975Google Scholar
  22. Layton, R., Sibelius: The Master Musician. London, 1978Google Scholar
  23. Nousiainen, J., The Finnish Political System. HarvardUniv. Press, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paasivirta, J., Finland and Europe. The Period of Autonomy and the International Crises 1808–1914. London, 1981Google Scholar
  25. Pearson, P., Alvar Aalto and the International Style. New York, 1978Google Scholar
  26. Puntila, L. A., The Political History of Finland. 1809–1966. Helsinki, 1974Google Scholar
  27. Pennia. Finland in Maps. (National Board of Survey). Helsinki, 1979Google Scholar
  28. Suomi: Handbook of Finnish Geography. Finnish Geogr. Society, Helsinki, 1979Google Scholar
  29. Törnudd, K., The Electoral System of Finland. London, 1968Google Scholar
  30. Uotila, J., The Finnish Legal System. Helsinki, 1966Google Scholar
  31. Wuolle, A., Finnish-English School Dictionary. Helsinki, 1976Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Paxton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations