The Panama Canal
On 18 Nov. 1903 a treaty between the USA and the Republic of Panama was signed making it possible for the US to build and operate a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the Isthmus of Panama. The treaty granted the US in perpetuity the use, occupation and control of a Canal Zone, approximately 10 miles wide, in which the US would possess full sovereign rights ‘to the entire exclusion of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any such sovereign rights, power or authority’. In return the US guaranteed the independence of the republic and agreed to pay the republic $10m. and an annuity of $250,000. The US purchased the French rights and properties—the French had been labouring from 1879 to 1899 in an effort to build the Canal—for $40m. and in addition, paid private landholders within what would be the Canal Zone a mutually agreeable price for their properties.
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Books of Reference
- Statistical Information: The Panama Canal Information Office; Information Officer: Victor G. Canel.Google Scholar
- Annual Reports on the Panama Canal, by the Administrator of the Panama Canal Commission.Google Scholar
- Rules and Regulations Governing Navigation of the Panama Canal. The Panama Canal Commission, Miama, Florida or Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Cameron, I., The Impossible Dream. London, 1972Google Scholar
- Du Val, M. P., Cadiz to Cathay: The Diplomatic Struggle for the Panama Canal. 2nd ed. Stanford Univ. Press, 1947.Google Scholar
- —And the Mountains will Move: The Building of the Panama Canal. Stanford Univ. Press, 1947Google Scholar
- Le Feber, W., The Panama Canal: The Crisis in Historical Perspective. OUP, 1978Google Scholar
- McCullough, D., The Patch Between the Seas. New York and London, 1978Google Scholar