The Principality of Bulgaria and the Autonomous Province of Eastern Rumelia, both under Turkish suzerainty, were constituted by the Treaty of Berlin, 13 July 1878. In 1885 Rumelia was reunited with Bulgaria. On 22 Sept. (5 Oct.) 1908 Bulgaria declared her independence of Turkey. Rulers: Prince Alexander I of Battenberg, 1879–86; Prince (after 1908, Tsar) Ferdinand, 1887–1918 (abdicated): Tsar Boris III, 1918–43; Tsar Simeon II, lost his throne as a result of the referendum held on 8 Sept. 1946. 3,801,160 votes were cast in favour of a republic, 197,176 votes in favour of the monarchy; 119,168 voting papers were invalid.
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