HISTORY. Since the Middle Ages Finland was a part of the realm of Sweden. In the 18th century parts of south-eastern Finland were conquered by Russia, and the rest of the country was ceded to Russia by the peace treaty of Hamina in 1809. Finland became an autonomous grand-duchy which retained its previous laws and institutions under its Grand Duke, the Emperor of Russia. After the Russian revolution Finland declared itself independent on 6 Dec. 1917. The country was freed from Russian troops in a war from Jan. to May 1918, in which, simultaneously, domestic groups advocating a socialist system of government were defeated.
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Books of Reference
- STATISTICAL INFORMATION. The Central Statistical Office (Tilastollinen päätoimisto, Swedish: Statistiska centralbyrån; address: P.O. Box 10 504. Helsinki 10) was founded in 1865 to replace earlier official statistical services dating from 1749 (in united Sweden-Finland). Statistics on foreign trade, agriculture, forestry, navigation, health and social welfare are produced by other state authorities. Director: Eino H. Laurila. Its publications include: Statistical Yearbook ofFinland (from 1879) and Bulletin of Statistics (monthly, from 1924). A bibliography of all official statistics of Finland is published in Finnish, Swedish and English in each Statistical Yearbook.Google Scholar
- Suomen valtiokalenteri (State Calendar of Finland; a Swedish version Finlands statskalender is published separately). Annual, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
- Introduction to Finland (ed. G. Stenius). Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Helsinki, 1963 (with bibliography)Google Scholar
- Alanne, V. S., Finnish-English General Dictionary. Helsinki, 1968Google Scholar
- Facts about Finland. Helsinki, 1967Google Scholar
- Finnish Foreign Policy: Studies in foreign politics. Political Science Association, Helsinki. 1963Google Scholar
- Hall, W., The Finns and their Country. London, 1967Google Scholar
- Jutikkala, E., and Pirinen, K., A History of Finland. New York, 1962Google Scholar
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- Wuorinen, J. H., A History of Finland. Columbia Univ. Press, 1965Google Scholar