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Turkey

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
  • S. H. Steinberg
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)

Abstract

HISTORY. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–23), following the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, was led by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk). The Turkish Army drove back a Greek invasion of Anatolia on 30 Aug. 1922. On 20 Jan. 1921 the Grand National Assembly of Ankara, which had been convened on 23 April 1920, voted a constitution which declared that all sovereignty belonged to the people and that all power, both executive and legislative, was vested in the Grand National Assembly. The old name ‘Ottoman Empire’ was replaced by ‘Turkey’. On 1 Nov. 1922 the Grand National Assembly abolished the office of Sultan and on 4 Nov. 1922 the administration of Istanbul passed into the hands of the Ankara government. Turkey became a republic on 29 Oct. 1923, and on 3 March 1924 the Grand National Assembly abolished the Caliphate and expelled from Turkey all members of the Ottoman dynasty. On 20 April 1924 a revised constitution declared the Turkish State to be a republic, the religion of which was Islam, the official language Turkish and the capital Ankara. On 10 April 1928 the reference to Islam was deleted and Turkey was declared a secular state.

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Steinberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Royal Historical SocietyUSA

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