HISTORY. Modern Polish history begins with the three partitions of the elective kingdom between Russia, Austria and Prussia in 1772, 1793 and 1795. After the creation by Napoleon I of a semi-independent ‘Grand-Duchy of Warsaw’ under the King of Saxony (1807–13), the country was again partitioned at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Thereby the old kingdom of Poland was distributed as follows: Russia, 178,000 sq. miles; Austria, 30,000 sq. miles; Prussia, 29,000 sq. miles; the ‘Kingdom of Poland’, in personal union with Russia, 47,000 sq. miles; and the free city of Cracow. The Polish revolution of 1830–31 caused in 1832 the suppression of the constitution granted in 1815 and made ‘Congress Poland’ virtually a Russian province, and the Prussian ‘Grand Duchy of Posen ‘ lost its privileges. The revolution of 1846–48 led to the incorporation of Cracow in Austria, the abolition of the ‘ Grand Duchy of Posen ‘ and further repression in ‘Congress Poland’, which was intensified after the revolution of 1863–64.
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