In 1863 present-day Poland was divided between Russia, Austria and Prussia, Russia including 4·5m. Poles, Austria 2·2m. Poles and 2·8m. Ruthenes, and Prussia 2·3m. Poles and other Slavs; these figures include about 1·5m. Jews. From 22 Jan. 1863 to the end of Aug. 1864, Russian Poland was in open revolt under a ‘National Government’. The revolution was suppressed with brutal savagery by the Russians, who hanged the members of the Polish government on 5 Aug. 1864 and placed the re-organized kingdom under the rule of 8 military governors.
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