Republic of the Philippines
In 1863 the Philippines was a colony of Spain. It had a Christian population of about 4m. and a non-Christian population (hill tribes and Moslems not under effective Spanish sovereignty) of about 1m. It produced hemp, sugar and tobacco for the world market. Total external trade was about 20m. pesos, with imports slightly exceeding exports. In addition to Manila, the capital, 4 provincial ports had recently been opened to world trade. Filipinos took no part in government except to a limited extent at the township and village level. But with economic growth a native middle class was emerging, and late in 1863 a royal decree called for the establishment of public elementary schools.
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Books of Reference
- Republic of the Philippine Government Manual, 1950. Manila, 1950 Google Scholar
- The Philippines: a Handbook of Information. Manila, 1955Google Scholar
- Gazetteer of the Philippine Islands. United States Department of Commerce. Washington, 1944Google Scholar
- Barton, R. F., The Kalingas. Chicago, 1949Google Scholar
- Bernstein, D., The Philippine Story. New York, 1947Google Scholar
- Chapman, A., Philippine Nationalism. New York, 1950Google Scholar
- Golay, F. H., The Philippines: Public Policy and National Economic Development. Cornell Univ., Press, 1961Google Scholar
- Hainsworth, B.G., and Moyer, K. T., Agricultural Geography of the Philippine Islands. Washington, 1945Google Scholar
- Krieger, H. W., Peoples of the Philippines. Washington, 1942Google Scholar
- Eurihara, K. K., Labor in the Philippine Economy. Stanford, 1945 Google Scholar
- Mills, L. A., The Philippines and Southeast Asia. Minneapolis, 1949Google Scholar
- Zafra, U. S., Philippine Economic Handbook. Silver Spring, Md., 1955Google Scholar