• S. H. Steinberg
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Korea, which had for many centuries been closed to foreigners, was in 1876 forced by Japan to open its ports to Japanese shipping and trade. China, which claimed a vague suzerainty over Korea, dispatched troops to Korea and, in order to offset Japanese influence, forced Korea to conclude trade agreements with the USA, Great Britain, Germany (1883), Italy and Russia (1884). After the Russo-Japanese war of 1904–5 Korea was virtually a Japanese protectorate until it was formally annexed by Japan on 22 Aug. 1910.

Han Kook


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Books of Reference

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Steinberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Royal Historical SocietyUK

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