In 1863 Bohemia, Moravia and (Austrian) Silesia (together 29,000 sq. miles) formed part of the Austrian empire. The centralistic constitution of 26 Feb. 1861 dissatisfied the Czechs, whose deputies in 1863 withdrew from the Vienna parliament. The 3 provinces were already industrialized, only-half of the working population being engaged in agriculture. The population was slightly over 7m.; Prague, the capital of Bohemia, had 150,000 inhabitants (most of them Germans and Jews), Brno, the capital of Moravia, had 60,000 inhabitants. The Slovak regions formed part of Hungary; Slovaks numbered 2m., living in agrarian poverty. The foundation of the Sokol (athletic clubs) in 1862 strengthened Czech national consciousness.
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