Mexico’s history falls into three epochs. She was annexed to the Spanish Crown by conquest in 1521, and for three centuries was governed by Spain through 62 Viceroys, from Antonio de Mendoza (1535–1550) to Juan O’Donojú (1821–1822). From 1822 to 1911 was the second epoch, covering nearly a century of national existence and abounding in movements and events shaping the national life. After three quarters of a century marked by stormy events (see Statesman’s Year-Book, 1928, p. 1099) the country settled down in 1876 to a long and quiet régime under the presidency of General Don Porfirio Diaz (died July 2, 1915), who ruled the country with the exception of four years (1880–4, General Manuel Gonzalez) until May 25, 1911, when he presented his resignation to Congress. Then began the third or revolutionary epoch, commencing with coups d’état and civil war and culminating in bold social and economic experiments.
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