Hungary first became an independent kingdom in 1001. The first written systematic and fundamental document of the Constitution is the ‘ Golden Bull,’ issued in 1222. On October 31, 1918, a revolution broke out in Hungary with the object of establishing a Republic. On November 13 King Charles issued a letter of abdication, and on November 16, 1918, Hungary was proclaimed an independent Republic (Hungarian People’s Republic), of which Count Michael Karolyi became Provisional President. The two Houses of the Legislature were abolished, and their place taken by a Provisional National Council. The Karolyi regime continued until March 21, 1919, when its place was taken by a Soviet Government, which proclaimed the dictatorship of the proletariat. An opposition Government was, however, soon set up at Arad and Szeged, and on August 7, 1919, a National Government was again in the capital. Elections were held on the basis of universal suffrage in January and February, 1920, and the new Parliament considered the period of the revolutions of 1918 and 1919 as de jure a blank space of time, and resolved that the old monarchical constitution should be continued. Hungary was thus considered a monarchy with a vacant throne, the functions of the monarch being exercised by a Regent. Act XLVII of 1921 postponed the accession to the throne to a later convenient period. In accordance with a law passed on July 17, 1933, the Regent has the power to prorogue or dissolve Parliament.
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