Empire of All the Russias
  • J. Scott Keltie
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Nicholas II., Emperor of All the Russias, born May 6 (May 18 new style),1868, the eldest son of the Emperor Alexander III. and of Princess Dagmar (Maria Feodorovna), daughter of King Christian IX. of Denmark; ascended the throne at the death of his father October 20 (November 1 new style), 1894; married November 14 (26), 1894, to Princess Alexandra Alix (Alexandra Feodorovna), daughter of Ludwig IV., Grand Duke of Hesse, born May 25 (June 6), 1872.


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Books of Reference Concerning Bokhara

  1. Barnes (Sir Alexander), Travels into Bokhara. 1839.Google Scholar
  2. Curzon (Hon. Gr.), Russia in Central Asia. 1889. [Contains ample Bibliography].—The Pamirs and the source of the Oxus. London, 1897.Google Scholar
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  4. Linsky (I.), Upper Bukhara. (Travels, 1896–99). In Russian. St. Petersburg. 1902.Google Scholar
  5. O’Donovan (E.), The Merv Oasis. 2 vols. London, 1889.Google Scholar
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Books of Reference Concerning Khiva

  1. Abbott (J.), Narrative of a Journey from Herat to Khiva. London, 1884.Google Scholar
  2. Burnaby (Col.), A Ride to Khiva. London, 1884.Google Scholar
  3. MacGahan (J. A.), Campaigning on the Oxus and the Fall of Khiva. London, 1874.Google Scholar
  4. Reclus (E.), Nouvelle Géographie universelle. L’Asie Russe. 1881.Google Scholar
  5. Bocca (F. de), De l’Alaï à l’Amou-Daria. Paris, 1896.Google Scholar
  6. Wood (H.), The Shores of the Lake Aral. London, 1876.Google Scholar
  7. Younghusband (F.), The Heart of a Continent. London, 1896.Google Scholar

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Russia. 1. Official Publications. Russian

  1. Administration: Official Messenger. By Ministry of the Interior (Daily).Google Scholar
  2. Agriculture: Annual Statement respecting Crops in Russia. By Central Statistical Committee. (Last issue: Crops in 1903. Published in 1904).—Report on Forestry in 1902. Ministry of Agriculture and State Domains, 1904.Google Scholar
  3. Census of 1897: Repartition of inhabited places of Russian Empire according to the number of inhabitants of each place. Central Statistical Committee of the Ministry of the Interior. St. Petersburg, May, 1902.Google Scholar
  4. Finance: Vestnik Finansov. By Ministry of Finance (Weekly).—Report of the State’s Control for 1903. St. Petersburg, 1904.—Report of the Minister of Finance for 1905.—Bulletin Russe de Statistique financière et de Legislation.—Statistical Reports of Ministry of Ways of Communication.—Annual Reports on State Bank, on the Nobles’ Bank, and on the Peasantry Bank for 1902. By A. Golubeff.—Report Statistics of Mortgages in Russia for 1902. By A. Golubeff. 1904.Google Scholar
  5. List of Manufactures in European Russia. 1903.—Collection of Reports of Factory Inspectors for 1902. St. Petersburg, 1904.Google Scholar
  6. Instruction; Statistical Data of Elementary Schools in the Russian Empire. St. Petersburg.—Data as to Agricultural Schools. St, Petersburg, 1902.—Report of Department of Mines. St. Petersburg.—Report of the Procurator of the Holy Synod. St. Petersburg.—Report of General Director of Military Schools.—Report of General Director of Cossack Army. These are annual publications.Google Scholar
  7. Justice: Statistics concerning Judicial Institutions. St. Petersburg, Annual.—Collection of Statistical Data roncerning Criminal Affairs in 1901. St. Petersburg, 1904.—Reports on Prison Administration.—Law of the new organisation of Peasants’ Tribunals in the Baltic Provinces. By Ministry of Justice. 2 vols. 1889.—Laws issued in 1889 concerning Peasants’ Institutions and Justices of the Peace. By Ministry of the Interior. 1890.Google Scholar
  8. Mines: Annual Report of Department of Mines for 1901. St. Petersburg, 1903.—Maps of the Gold Mines of Siberia and the Urals. 1897.—Information published by the Statistical Bureau of the Congress of Mineholders (Coal). 1904.—Collection of Statistical Data Concerning the Iron Industry. Monthly. (December No. 1903, gives figures for 1903).— Information published by the Statistical Bureau of the Congress of Naphtha workers of Baku for 1903.Google Scholar
  9. Navy: Annual of the Ministry of the Navy.—Institutions of the Navy. 18 vols. 1888.Google Scholar
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  11. Postal and Telegraph Statistics. Annual.—Statistical Review of the Russian Railways and Internal Water Communications, 1903.—River Fleet on January 1, 1900. Ministry of Ways and Communications. St. Petersburg, 1903.—Guide to the Siberian Railway (also in English), 1903. Monthly Publication of the Statistical and Cartographical Section of the Ministry of Ways and Communication. (Railways in 1903, in March No. 1904).Google Scholar
  12. Annual Report of the Procurator of the Holy Synod. St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  13. Report of the Medical Department for 1904. St. Petersburg, 1904.Google Scholar
  14. Trade: Review of the Foreign Trade of Russia for 1902. St. Petersburg, 1904.—Review of the Foreign Trade on the European Frontier for 1903. St. Petersburg, 1904.—Report of General Direction of Commercial Navy and Ports for 1902.—Materials for Commercial and Industrial Statistics. By Department of Trade and Manufactures, 1900.Google Scholar

French, English, &c

  1. Exposition Universelle de 1900. Notices sur Finlande. Helsingfors, 1900.Google Scholar
  2. Premier Recensement Général de la Population de l’Empire de Russie, 1897. Livraisons 1 and 2. St. Petersburg, 1898.Google Scholar
  3. Règlement définitif du Budget de 1 Empire pour l’exercice, 1903. Mémoire explicatif annexé au Compte-Rendu du Contrôle de l’Empire présenté au Conseil de l’Empire. St. Pétersbourg, 1904.Google Scholar
  4. Marine marchande russe. Liste des bâtiments. Issued by the Department of Trade. St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  5. Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. [Especially No. 3253, 1904.] London.Google Scholar
  6. Reply of the Finnish Estates to the Proposals of H.M. Nicholas II. for a New Military Service Law in Finland. Translated from the Swedish. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  7. Hertslet (Sir Edward), Foreign Office List. Published annually. London.Google Scholar
  8. Statistik Arsbok för Finland, utg. af Statistiska Centralbyrån. Annual. Helsingfors.Google Scholar
  9. Statesman’s Handbook for Russia. Edited by the Chancery of the Committee of Ministers. St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  10. Report of the Minister of Finance to H.M. the Emperor on the Budget of the Empire for 1905.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications

  1. Aitoff (D.), The Russian Empire. In Hugh Robert Mill’s International Geography. 3id ed. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  2. Antropoff, Financial and Statistical Atlas of the Russian Empire. St. Petersburg, 1898.Google Scholar
  3. Armies of To-day, by various writers. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  4. Baedeker’s Handbook for Russia. 5th ed. Leipzig, 1901.Google Scholar
  5. Bär (K. E. von) and Helmersen (Gr. von), Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reichs. St. Petersburg, 1852–1900.Google Scholar
  6. Brokhaus and Efron’s Cyclopaedia, Russia Present and Past. St. Petersburg, 1900. (In Russian.)Google Scholar
  7. Brüggen (E. von der), Russia of To-day. [Trans. from the German.] London, 1904.Google Scholar
  8. Chuproff, Influence of Harvests and of Value of Cereals on our Rural Economy. St. Petersburg, 1896.Google Scholar
  9. Clarke (Sir G. S.), Russia’s Sea Power, Past and Present. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  10. Diakoff (A.), La Russie et les Etrangers. Bruxelles, 1903.Google Scholar
  11. Dosuzhkoff, Income from Custom Duties during the years 1822 to 1890. St. Petersburg, 1892. (Russian.)Google Scholar
  12. Drage (G.), Russian Affairs. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  13. Durrien (A.) et Fauvelle (R.), Samarkand la bien gardée. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  14. Engelhardt (A. P.), A Russian Province of the North. [Translated from the Russian.] London, 1899.Google Scholar
  15. Erman (Georg Adolf), Archiv für die wissenschaftliche Kunde Russlands. 25 vols. Berlin, 1841–68.Google Scholar
  16. Foulke (W. D.), Slav or Saxon. A Study of the Growth and Tendencies of Russian Civilization. 3rd ed. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  17. Ganz (H.), The Downfall of Russia. [Eng. Trans. from the German]. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  18. Goremykin, Laws relative to the Peasantry issued since 1859. St. Petersburg, 1891. (Russian).Google Scholar
  19. Iliin (A.), Detailed Atlas of Russia, with plans of chief towns. St. Petersburg, 1886. Russian.)Google Scholar
  20. Issaeff (A. A.), Emigration and its Importance for the Economy of the Russian Nation. St. Petersburg, 1891. (Russian.)Google Scholar
  21. Jackson (F. G.), The Great Frozen Land. 8. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  22. Jane (F. T.), The Imperial Russian Navy: Its Past, Present, and Future. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  23. Joubert (C.), Russia as it really is. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  24. Kleinschmidt (A.), Drei Jahrhunderte russischer Geschichte, 1598–1898. Leipzig, 1898.Google Scholar
  25. Kovalevsky (E.), Popular Education at the Nizhnii Novgorod and the Buda Pest Exhibitions. St. Petersburg, 1897Google Scholar
  26. Kovalevsky (Maxime), Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia. London, 1891.—Le Régime économique de la Russie. Paris, 1898.Google Scholar
  27. Kovalewsky (W. de), L’Agriculture en Russie. Paris, 1897.—La Russie à la Fin du XIXe Siècle. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  28. Kropotkin (P.), Memoirs of a Revolutionist. 2 vols. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  29. Lavisse (E.), Rambaud (A.), and others, Histoire Générale. Vols. X., XI. Paris, 1898–99.Google Scholar
  30. Leger (L.), Russes et Slaves. Paris, 1890.—Second Series. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  31. Lestrades (Vicomte Combes de), La Russie à l’Avènement de Nicolas II. Paris, 1896.Google Scholar
  32. Leroy-Beaulieu (Anatole), L’Empire des Tsars et les Russes. 3 vols. Paris, 1882. English translation. 8. London, 1893–96.]—Etudes russes et européennes. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  33. Logan (J. A.), In Joyful Kussia. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  34. Matthaei (Fr.), Die wirthschaftlichen Hilfsquellen Russlands. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1887.Google Scholar
  35. Milioukoff (P.), Essai sur l’Histoire de la Civilisation russe. Paris. 1901.Google Scholar
  36. Murray’s Handbook for Russia. 8. London.Google Scholar
  37. Norman (H.), All the Russias. London, 1902.Google Scholar
  38. On (Nicholas), Historie du Développement économique de la Russie depuis l’abolition du servage. Paris, 1899.Google Scholar
  39. Ookhtomsky (Prince E.), Travels of Nicholas II. in the East. 2 vols. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  40. Orlov, List of Manufactures in Russia; in the Asiatic Dominions. 2 vols. St. Petersburg. 1894–5. (Russian.)Google Scholar
  41. Ostrovsky, Guide over North Russia. St. Petersburg, 1898.Google Scholar
  42. Palmer (F. H. E.), Russian Life in Town ami Country. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  43. Pobyedonostseff (K. P.), Reflections of a Russian Statesman. [Eng. Trans.]. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  44. Rabot (Ch.), A travers la Russie boréale. 8. Paris, 1894.Google Scholar
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  46. Reclus (Elisée), Géographie universelle. Tome V. L’Europe Scandinave et Russe, revised to date in 1885. VI. L’Asie Russe, Paris, 1880–81, And Appendix to the Russian translation, by MM. Beketoff, Bogdanoff, Woeikoff, and others. St. Petersburg, 1884.Google Scholar
  47. Rittich (A.), Die Ethnographie Russlands. Gotha, 1877.Google Scholar
  48. Röttger (Carl), Russische Revue. Monatsschrift für die Kunde Russlands. 8. St. Petersburg, 1872–92.Google Scholar
  49. Roskoschny, Russland, Land und Leute. Leipzig, 1886; Die Wolga. Leipzig, 1887.—Das arme Russland, Leipzig, 1890.Google Scholar
  50. Roussanof, Article Russia in Vol. V. of the Dictionnaire de Geographie of Vivien de St. Martin and L. Rousselet. Paris.Google Scholar
  51. Samson-Himmelstierna, Russia under Alexander III. [Translation from the German.] 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  52. Shierbrand (W. von), Russia: her Strength and her Weakness. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  53. Seignobos (C.), A Political History of Contemporary Europe. 2 vols. London, 1900. Translation of Histoire Politique de l’Europe Contemporaine. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  54. Semenoff (N. P.) The Emancipation of Peasants. Vol. I. St. Petersburg, 1889.Google Scholar
  55. Semenoff (P. P.), Geographical and Statistical Dictionary of the Russian Empire. (Russian.) 5 vols. 8. St. Petersburg, 1863–84.Google Scholar
  56. Sieroshevsky (V. A.), Description of Ethnographical Researches. Edited by N. E. Veselovsky. St. Petersburg, 1896.Google Scholar
  57. Shchapoff (A.), The Intellectual Development of the Russian People. (Russian.) 8. St. Petersburg, 1870.Google Scholar
  58. Slantieff, Review of Hunts for Trade in Russia. Edited by Dep. of Agriculture (2 maps). St. Petersburg, 1891.Google Scholar
  59. Stepniak (E.), King Log and King Stork, a Study of Modern Russia. 2 vols. London,1896.Google Scholar
  60. Stoddard (C. A.), Across Russia from the Baltic to the Danube. 8. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  61. Strelbitzky (M.), Superficies de l’Europe. St. Petersburg, 1882.Google Scholar
  62. Suvorin (A.), All Russia: a Directory of Industries, Agriculture, and Administration. (With a good Railway map.) St. Petersburg, 1895. (Russian.)Google Scholar
  63. Suvorin. Russian Calendar, published in December each year.Google Scholar
  64. Tarassof (K.), Alexandre III. et Nicolas II. Bruxelles, 1895.Google Scholar
  65. Thompson (A. B.), The Oil Fields of Russia and the Russian Petroleum Industry. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  66. Thun, Industrie Central-Russlands.Google Scholar
  67. Tikhomirov (L. A.), Russia Political and Social. [Translation from the French.] 2nd edition. 2 vols. 8. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  68. Tselebovsky (Colonel), Collection of the latest data on the armed strength of the European States. St. Petersburg, 1899.Google Scholar
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  70. Wallace (Mackenzie), Russia. 2 vols. 8. London, 1877.Google Scholar
  71. Wishaw (F. J.), Out of Doors in Tsarland. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
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  73. Zepelin (General von), Die Heere und Flotten der Gegenwart. III. Russland. Berlin, 1898.Google Scholar
  74. Zograf (N.), Populations of Russland. Moscow, 1891.Google Scholar


  1. Atlas de Finlande, Maps and Text. 17 vols. Helsingfors, 1899.Google Scholar
  2. Constitution du Grand-Duché du Finlande. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  3. Fisher (J. R.), Finland and the Tsars. New od. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  4. Frederiksen (N. C.), Finland, its Public and Private Economy. London, 1902.Google Scholar
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  6. Phibbs (Isabella M.), The Grand Duchy of Finland. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  7. Tweedie (Mr. A.), Through Finland in Carts. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  8. Vlugt (W. van der), Le Conflit Finlandais and Pour la Finlande. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
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  1. Brandes (G.), Poland: A Study of the Land, People, and Literature. London, 1903.Google Scholar
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  1. Abich (H.), Aus kaukasischen Ländern. 2 vols. 1896.Google Scholar
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  4. Radde (G.) and others, Grundzüge der Pflanzenverbreitung im dem Kaukasusländern, &c. 3 Parts. Leipzig, 1899.Google Scholar

Central Asia

  1. Albrecht (Dr. Max), Russisch Centraiasien. Hamburg, 1896.Google Scholar
  2. Capus (G.), A travers le Royaume de Tamerlane. 8. Paris, 1892.Google Scholar
  3. Cobbold (R. P.), Innermost Asia. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  4. Dunmore (Earl of), The Pamirs. 2 vols. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  5. Elias (N.), (Editor), The Moghuls of Central Asia. [Trans. by E. D. Ross.] London, 1898.Google Scholar
  6. Knight (E. F.), Where Three Empires Meet. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  7. Krafft (H.), A travers le Turkestan Russe. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  8. Lansdell (H.), Russian Central Asia. London, 1885.Google Scholar
  9. Meakin (Annette M. B.), The Russian Turkestan. London, 1903.Google Scholar
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  13. Schwarz (F. von), Turkestan. Berlin and Freiberg, 1900.Google Scholar
  14. Skrine (F. H.), The Expansion of Russia, 1815–1900. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  15. Skrine (F. H.), and Ross (E. D.) The Heart of Asia. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  16. Ular (A.), A Russo-Chinese Empire. [From the French.] London, 1904.Google Scholar


  1. Aulagnon (C.), La Sibérie Economique. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  2. Beveridge (A. J.), The Russian Advance. New York, 1903.Google Scholar
  3. Deutsch ( L.), Sixteen Years in Siberia [Eng. Trans. by Helen Chisholm]. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  4. V. Dolgorukoff, Guide over Siberia. 3rd year. Tomsk, 1898.Google Scholar
  5. Fraser (J. F.), The Real Siberia. London, 1902.Google Scholar
  6. Gerrare (Wirt), Greater Russia. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  7. Hawes (C. H.), In the Uttermost East [Sakhalin, Korea, &c.], London, 1903.Google Scholar
  8. Hedin (Sven), Through Asia. 2 vols. London, 1898.—Central Asia and Tibet. 2 vols. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  9. Howard (B. D.), Life with Trans-Siberian Savages, [The Ainus of Saghalien.] 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
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  13. Krahmer (—), Russland in Asien. 7 vols. Leipzig, 1899–1904.Google Scholar
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  20. Reid (A.), From Peking to Petersburg. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  21. Ronaldshay (Earl of), On the Outskirts of Empire in Asia. Edinburgh, 1904.Google Scholar
  22. Schreider (D.), Our Far East. St. Petersburg, 1897.Google Scholar
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  24. Stadling (J.), Through Siberia, London, 1901.Google Scholar
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  29. Wright (G. F.), Asiatic Russia. 2 vols. London, 1903.Google Scholar
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The Jews of Russia:—

  1. Report of the Commissioners of Immigration upon the causes which incite immigration to the United States. [The chapters on the Jews in Russia, by J. B. Weber and W. Kempster, have been translated into French and issued separately under the title ‘La Situation des Juifs en Russie.’] 8. Washington, 1892.Google Scholar
  2. Bernheimer (C. S.), The Russian Jews in the United States. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  3. Bershadsky (S. A.), The Lithuanian Jews. [In Russian.] St, Petersburg, 1883. Materials for the History of the Jews in Lithuania. [In Russian.] 2 vols. St. Petersburg, 1892.Google Scholar
  4. Errera (A.), The Jews in Russia: Emancipation or Extermination. 8. London, 1894.Google Scholar
  5. Frederic (Harold), The New Exodus: a Study of Israel in Russia. 8. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  6. Gradovsky (H. D.), La Situation legale des Israélites en Russie. Traduit du Russe. 8. Paris, 1890. In progress.Google Scholar
  7. Pennell (Joseph), The Jew at Home. 4. London.Google Scholar
  8. Sternberg (H.), Geschichte der Juden in Polen unter den Piasten und den Jagellione. 8. Leipsic, 1878.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1905

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Scott Keltie

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