Advertisement

Explaining Minority Conflict in China: A Theoretical Perspective

  • Rohan Gunaratna
  • Arabinda Acharya
  • Wang Pengxin

Abstract

The genesis of ethnic conflict and terrorism around the world has often been subjected to much scholastic scrutiny. These involve root causes issues such as poverty and unemployment, discrimination and marginalization, and/or domination encompassing majority-minority—linguistic, religious—relations. Following September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, there is now a tendency to treat the terrorist threat more as a civilizational conflict or “clash of civilizations,” one of the cultural conflicts which Samuel Huntington predicted in his now famous work, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order several years ago.2 Equating contemporary terrorism with Islam has also become the predominant discourse of security debates. In The Roots of Muslim Rage, for example, Bernard Lewis wrote how “we are facing a mood and a movement far transcending the level of issues and policies and governments that pursue them.”3 Use of sweeping generalizations such as “Al Qaeda spearheaded universal jihad,”4 “Islam’s inherent incompatibility with modernity,”5 the “moral and ideological crisis” that has beset “the collective Muslim mind”6 has become commonplace in the new security discourse.

Keywords

State Security Political Violence Human Security Security Agenda Ethnic Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Zhu Yuchao and Blachford Dongyan, ℌEthnic Disputes in International Politics: Manifestations and Conceptualizations,ℍ Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2006): 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Francis Fukuyama, ℌHistory and September 11,ℍ in Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order, ed. Ken Booth and Tim Dunne (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 28.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernand Lewis, ℌThe Roots of Muslim Rage,ℍ The Atlantic Monthly., Vol. 266, No. 3 (September 1990): 47–60.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peter Chalk, ℌAl Qaeda and Its Links to Terrorist Groups in Asia,ℍ in The New Terrorism, Anatomy, Trends and Counter Strategies, ed. Andrew Tan and Kumar Ramakrishna (Singapore: Eastern University Press, 2002), 109.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fareed Zakaria, ℌThe Return of History: What September 11 Hath Wrought,ℍ in How Did This Happen?, Ed. James F. Hoge and Giden Rose (New York: Public Affairs, 2001);Google Scholar
  6. Karim Raslan, ℌNow a Historic Chance to Welcome Muslims into the System,ℍ International Herald Tribune, (November 27, 2001). http://www.asiasource.org/asip/raslan.cfm.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Farish A. Noor, New Voices of Islam, (Leiden: Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World, 2002).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Robert Keohane, ℌThe Public Delegitimation of Terrorism and Coalition Politics,ℍ in Worlds in Collision, ed. Ken Booth and Tim Dunne (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 141.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Suzaina Kadir, ℌMapping Muslim Politics in Southeast Asia after September 11,ℍ EIAS Publications BP 02/05, (December 2002): 3. http://www.eias.org/publications/briefing/2002/muslimsea.pdf.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amitav Acharya, ℌSoutheast Asian Security after September 11, Asia Pacific Foundation of Canad,ℍ Foreign Policy Dialogue Series, (2003).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.g., Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991);Google Scholar
  12. Paul Roe, Ethnic Violence and the Social Security Dilemma, (London: Routledge, 2005).Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Rhonda L. Callaway and Julie Harrelson-Stephens, ℌTowards a Theory of Terrorism: Human Security as a Determinant of Terrorism,ℍ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 29 (2006): 773–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Michael Clarke, ℌChina’s ‘War on Terror’ in Xinjiang: Human Security and the Causes of Violent Uighur Separatism,ℍ Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 20, No. 2 (2008): 272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    For a detailed account of what constitutes new security issues, among others, Richard Ullman, ℌRedefining Security,ℍ International Security, Vol. 8, No. 1 (1983): 129–153;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. L. Paggi and P. Pinzauti, ℌPeace and Security,ℍ Telos, No. 68 (1985): 79;Google Scholar
  17. N. Myers, ℌEnvironment and Security,ℍ Foreign Policy, No. 74 (1989): 24;Google Scholar
  18. Jessica T. Matthews, ℌRedefining Security,ℍ Foreign Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 2 (1989): 162;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. David Dewitt, ℌCommon, Comprehensive and Cooperative Security,ℍ The Pacific Review, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1994): 3;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. David Baldwin, ℌThe Concept of Security,ℍ Review of International Studies, Vol. 23 (1997): 26. The International Human Development Program Research Project on Global Environmental Change and Human Security, synopsis on ℌWhat Is ‘Human Security?’ ℍ makes a complete inventory of the human security regimes. http://ibm.rhrz.uni-bonn.de/ihdp/gechumansecurity.htm.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 16.
    Seyom Brown, ℌWorld Interests and the Changing Dimensions of Security,ℍ in World Security: Challenges for a New Century, 3rd edition, ed. Michael T. Klare and Yogesh Chandrani (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 3–4.Google Scholar
  22. 17.
    Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams, ℌBroadening the Agenda of Security Studies: Politics and Methods,ℍ Mershon International Studies Review, Vol. 40 (Supplement 2, 1996): 229–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 18.
    Jessica T. Matthews, e.g., tells us how there has been a novel redistribution of power among states, markets and civil society, so much so that national governments share power—ℌincluding political, social and security rolesℍ—with ℌbusinesses, with international organizations, and with a multitude of citizen groups known as nongovernmental organizations.ℍ Jessica T. Matthews, ℌPower Shift,ℍ Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, No. 1 (1997): 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 19.
    Henry Kissinger, ℌA New National Partnership,ℍ Department of State Bulletin (February, 17, 1975): 199 quoted in Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Power and Interdependence, (Boston: Scott, Foresman, 1989), 26.Google Scholar
  25. 20.
    David Baldwin, ℌSecurity Studies and the End of the Cold War,ℍ World Politics, Vol. 48, No. 1 (1995): 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 21.
    Woosang Kim, ℌHuman Security Concerns in Global Politics,ℍ in The Human Face of Security: Asia-Pacific Perspectives, ed. David Dickens (Canberra: Australian National University, 2002), 44;Google Scholar
  27. Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, (Cambridge/Stanford: Polity Press/Stanford University Press, 1990);Google Scholar
  28. Martin Shaw, Global Society and International Relations, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  29. 22.
    Barry Buzan, Ole Waever, Jaap de Wilde, eds. Security, A New Framework of Analysis, (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998), 1.Google Scholar
  30. 23.
    Richard Ullman, ℌRedefining Security,ℍ International Security, Vol. 8, No. 1 (1983): 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 24.
    Caroline Thomas, In Search of security: the Third World in International Relations, (Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1987), 4.Google Scholar
  32. 26.
    Ronnie D. Lipshutz, ℌOn Security,ℍ in On Security, ed. Ronnie D. Lipshutz (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 5.Google Scholar
  33. 27.
    Norman Meyers, Ultimate Security, (New York: Norton, 1993), 12.Google Scholar
  34. 28.
    Gareth Evans, ℌCooperative Security and Intra State Conflict,ℍ Foreign Policy, No. 96 (Fall 1994): 8–9.Google Scholar
  35. 29.
    Ronald Paris, ℌHuman Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?ℍ International Security, Vol. 26. No. 2 (Fall 2001): 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 31.
    Daniel Deudney, ℌThe Case Against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security,ℍ Millennium, Vol. 19, No. 3 (1990): 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 32.
    Patric Morgan, ℌLiberalist and Realist security Studies at 2000: Two Decades of Progress?ℍ in Critical Reflection on Security and Change, ed. Stuart Croft and Terry Terriff (London: Frank Cass, 2000), 40.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, (Cambridge/Stanford: Polity Press/Stanford University Press, 1990);Google Scholar
  39. Martin Shaw, Global Society and International Relations, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991).Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    O. Waever, B. Buzan, M. Kelstrup, and P. Lemaitre, Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, (London: Pinter, 1993), 24–25.Google Scholar
  42. 44.
    Paul Roe, Ethnic Violence and the Social Security Dilemma, (London: Routledge, 2005), 42.Google Scholar
  43. 45.
    Lindholm, Helena, ℌIntroduction: A Conceptual Discussion,ℍ in Ethnicity and Nationalism: Formation of Identity and Dynamics of Conflict in the 1990s, ed. Helena Lindholm (Gothenburg: Nordnes, 1993), 1–39.Google Scholar
  44. 46.
    Paul Roe, ℌThe Intrastate Security Dilemma: Ethnic Conflict as a ‘Tragedy’?ℍ Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 36, No. 2 (1999): 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 49.
    Waever, et al. Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, (1993), 43.Google Scholar
  46. 56.
    Walker Connor, ℌNationalism and Political Illegitimacy,ℍ in Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World, ed. Daniele Conversi (New York: Routledge, 2002), 37.Google Scholar
  47. 60.
    Ernie Regehr, ℌIt’s not really a matter of hate,ℍ Disarming Conflict, (May 9, 2007). http://www.igloo.org/disarmingconflict/itsnotre/Google Scholar
  48. 61.
    Andrew Tan, ℌArmed Muslim Separatist Rebellion in Southeast Asia: Persistence, Prospects, and Implications,ℍ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 23 (October—December 2000): 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 62.
    Jack Snyder, From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict, (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 322–323.Google Scholar
  50. 63.
    Ernie Regehr, ℌIt’s not really a matter of hate,ℍ Disarming Conflict, (May 9, 2007).Google Scholar
  51. 64.
    Stephen Phillip Cohen, India: Emerging Power, (Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  52. 67.
    Bruce Hoffman, ℌThe Emergence of New Terrorism,ℍ in The New Terrorism, Anatomy, Trends and Counter Strategies, ed. Andrew Tan and Kumar Ramakrishna (Singapore: Eastern University Press, 2002), 38.Google Scholar
  53. 68.
    Barry Desker, ℌIslam in Southeast Asia: The Challenge of Radical Interpretations,ℍ Cambridge Review of international Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 3 (October 2003): 421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 69.
    Rohan Gunaratna, ℌAl-Qaeda’s Trajectory in 2003,ℍ IDSS Perspectives, (May 3, 2003). http://www.ntu.edu.sg/idss/Perspective/research_050303.htm.Google Scholar
  55. 70.
    Barry Desker, ℌThe Jemaah Islamiyah Phenomenon in Singapore,ℍ Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 25, No. 3 (2003): 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Rohan Gunaratna, Arabinda Acharya and Wang Pengxin 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rohan Gunaratna
  • Arabinda Acharya
  • Wang Pengxin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations