Contemporary Applications of Confucian Healing

  • Kwang-kuo Hwang


The pre-Qin morphostasis of Chinese culture for self-cultivation had been utilized to develop various types of psychotherapy. The goals of Morita therapy are the recognition of facts, obedience to nature, focus on the present, the increase of spontaneous activities, the decrease of self-focused preoccupation, the elimination of indulgence in moods and emotions (kibun honi), the withholding of value judgments, the reduction of intellectualizing, the cessation of escape into a sick role, and the cultivation of a humble (sunao) mind. According to Naikan therapy, an individual’s psychological problems are rooted in distorted interpersonal relationships with significant others. Constructive living therapy assumes that with the uncontrollability of feelings and emotional states, a client’s energy should be logically redirected toward behavior and action. By practicing methods of self-cultivation, an individual undergoing Taoist Healing for Authentic Self may return to the state in which that person moves with the rhythm of the universe, similar to a foetus moving in a mother’s womb.


  1. Foucault, M. (1978–1985). The history of sexuality (vols. 1–2) (R. Hurley, Trans.). New York: Vintage. (Original work published 1976–1984).Google Scholar
  2. Gerstein, L. H., & Ægisdóttir, S. (2005). A trip around the world: A counseling travelogue. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 27, 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Iwai, H., & Abe, T. (1975). Morita ryoho no riron to jissai [Theory and practice of Morita therapy]. Tokyo : Kongo Shuppan.Google Scholar
  4. Johanson, G., & Kurtz, R. (1991). Grace unfolding: Psychotherapy in the spirit of the Tao-te Ching. New York: Bell Tower.Google Scholar
  5. Kimura, B. (1972). Hito to Hito tono Aida [Interpersonal space]. Tokyo: Kobundo.Google Scholar
  6. Lu, K. Y. (1964). The secrets of Chinese meditation. London: Rider.Google Scholar
  7. Lu, T. P. (1962). The secret of the golden flower: A Chinese book of life (R. Wilhelm, Trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace World.Google Scholar
  8. Murase, T., & Johnson, F. A. (1974). Naikan, Morita, and Western psychotherapy: A comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ni, H. C. (1992). Internal alchemy: The natural way to immortality. Santa Monica, CA: College of Tao and Traditional Chinese Healing.Google Scholar
  10. Reynolds, D. K. (1976). Morita psychotherapy. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Reynolds, D. K. (1980). The quiet therapies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  12. Reynolds, D. K. (1983). Naikan psychotherapy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Reynolds, D. K. (1987). Water bears no scars. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  14. Reynolds, D. K. (1989). Meaningful life therapy. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 13, 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Reynolds, D. K. (1990). A thousand waves. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  16. Reynolds, D. K. (1995). A handbook for constructive living. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  17. Watts, A. (1961). Psychotherapy East and West. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  18. Wilhelm, R. (1960). The I Ching or book of changes (C. F. Baynes, Trans.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  19. Zhang, Y. L. (1993). Comparison of coping styles after stress between patients with mental disorders and normal controls. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1, 36–39.Google Scholar
  20. Zhang, Y., Young, D., Lee, S., Li, L., Zhang, H., Xiao, Z., et al. (2002). Chinese Taoist cognitive psychotherapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in contemporary China. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39, 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwang-kuo Hwang
    • 1
  1. 1.Kaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations