The Complex Relations Between SA and SBO During Trauma and the Development of Body-Disownership

  • Yochai Ataria


This chapter discusses the complex relations between the SBO and SA during trauma. It contends that in the presence of a discrepancy between SBO and SA, the individual is unable to function properly and body-disownership may develop.


  1. Améry, J. (1980). At the mind’s limits (S. Rosenfeld & S. P. Rosenfeld, Trans.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ataria, Y. (2010). Consciousness-body-time: How do people think lacking their body? (MA thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem).Google Scholar
  3. Ataria, Y. (2015a). Dissociation during trauma: The ownership-agency tradeoff model. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 14(4), 1037–1053.
  4. Ataria, Y. (2015b). Sense of ownership and sense of agency during trauma. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 14(1), 199–212.
  5. Ataria, Y. (2015c). Trauma from an enactive perspective: The collapse of the knowing-how structure. Adaptive Behavior, 23(3), 143–154.
  6. Ataria, Y., & Neria, Y. (2013). Consciousness-body-time: How do people think lacking their body? Humans Studies, 36(2), 159–178.
  7. Baldwin, D. V. (2013). Primitive mechanisms of trauma response: An evolutionary perspective on trauma-related disorders‏. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1549–1566.Google Scholar
  8. Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735.Google Scholar
  9. Bracha, S. H. (2004). Freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint: Adaptationist perspectives on the acute stress response spectrum. CNS Spectrums, 9(9), 679–685.Google Scholar
  10. Dorfman, E. (2014). Foundations of the everyday: Shock, deferral, repetition. London and New York: Rowman & Littlefield International.Google Scholar
  11. Herman, J. L. (1992b). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Janet, P. (1889). L’automatisme psychologique. Paris: Alcan.Google Scholar
  13. Janet, P. (1925). Psychological healing: A historical and clinical study (E. Paul & C. Paul, Trans.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Kozlowska, K., Walker, P., McLean, L., & Carrive, P. (2015). Fear and the defense cascade: Clinical implications and management. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 23(4), 263–287.
  15. Leder, D. (1990). The absent body. Chicago: The University of Chicago press.Google Scholar
  16. Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D., & Metzler, T. (1998). Peritraumatic dissociationand posttraumatic stress disorder. In J. Bremner & C. Marmar (Eds.), Trauma, memory, and dissociation (pp. 229–252). Washington: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  17. Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., Jordan, B. K., Kulka, R. A., & Hough, R. L. (1994). Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress in male Vietnam theater veterans. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(6), 902–907.Google Scholar
  18. McNally, R. J. (2003a). Remembering trauma. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. McNally, R. J. (2003b). Psychological mechanisms in acute response to trauma. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 53(9), 779–788.
  20. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The primacy of perception (J. Edie, Ed.). Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002). Phenomenology of perception (C. Smith, Trans.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  22. Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2008). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, S(1), 3–36.Google Scholar
  23. Scarry, E. (1987). The body in pain: The making and unmaking of the world. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2010). Dissociation following traumatic stress: Etiology and treatment. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 218(2), 109–127.
  25. Schilder, P. (1935). The image and appearance of the human body. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  26. Semprun, J. (1998). Literature or life (L. Coverdale, Trans.). ‏New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Shalamov, V. T. (1994). Kolyma tales (J. Glad, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  28. Spiegel, D. (1997). Trauma, dissociation, and memory. Psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 821, 225–237.Google Scholar
  29. Van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E., Steele, K., & Brown, D. (2004). Trauma-related dissociation: Conceptual clarity lost and found. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 906–914.
  30. Van der Kolk, B. A. (1987). Psycological trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  31. Van der Kolk, B. A., & Saporta, J. (1991). The biological response to psychic trauma: Mechanisms and treatment of intrusion and numbing. Anxiety Research, 4(3), 199–212.Google Scholar
  32. Van der Kolk, B. A., & Van der Hart, O. (1989). Pierre Janet & the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(12), 1530–1540.
  33. Van der Velden, P., & Wittmann, L. (2008). The independent predictive value of peritraumatic dissociation for PTSD symptomatology after type I trauma: A systematic review of prospective studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1009–1020.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yochai Ataria
    • 1
  1. 1.Tel-Hai CollegeUpper GalileeIsrael

Personalised recommendations