“We Have Tomorrow Bright Before Us Like a Flame”: Pronouns, Enactors, and Cross-Writing in The Dream Keeper and Other Poems

  • Marcello Giovanelli


Langston Hughes (1902–1967) was a renowned and celebrated twentieth-century African-American poet who contributed significant literary outputs in the cultural movement known as the Harlem Renaissance and also published poems for children. This chapter draws on Text World Theory to explore Hughes’ use of first-person pronouns in two poems from The Dream Keeper. In doing so, it demonstrates how the potential for ambiguous, dual referents is an important stylistic feature of Hughes’ presentation of childhood and children in poetry that is aimed at both adult and child audiences.


Text World Theory Pronouns Poetry Langston Hughes The Dream Keeper Cross-writing 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcello Giovanelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Aston UniversityBirminghamUK

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